As well, theoretical as well as empirical studies point to the potential contribution of private sector to reforms aimed at improving the quality and accessibility of health systems. The focus of the study is the increased focus of public-private partnerships (PPP) as a way of increasing capital finance as well as improving the efficiency and quality of service provision in low and middle-income countries. The partnership involves the public sector entering into long-term contract with private sector in order to enable the public sector access private capital for building and renovating health facilities and agreeing to deliver services over the contract period. Such contracts are designed and agreed upon some pre-determined specifications of the required outputs and define the financial, working and clinical standards, which the private sector has to meet. In low and middle-income nations, governments remain the ultimate funder of health care by making periodic payments to private sector in return for services delivered (Hellowell, 2012 p.71). Public-private partnership is an institutional arrangement built on foundation of fresh public management that claims objectives such as improved efficiency, quality as well as competition of public sector services. In striving to achieve these objectives, PPP aims at achieving value for money while reducing the demands on the state budget by involving the private sector in provision of traditional infrastructure services like health care. Adoption of PPP policy within industrialized nations is often viewed as a tool for further development of public services, while its application in developing nations is a way for reducing poverty and improving the service offered to citizens in such nations. Early 1990s PPPs policy was widely adopted in industrialized nations like USA, UK and Australia; nevertheless, this policy has been diffused in developing nations (Appuhami, Perera & Perera, 2011, p.431). The approach of PPP is attractive to developing countries that often experience macro-economic problems like poor infrastructure that burden the government budgets and excessive government budget. State-based healthcare service provision and private sector health services have existed together in various low and middle-income nations for decades with many nations having a huge portion of healthcare spending paid by the state. Private providers are heterogonous made up of formal business entities like independent hospitals, informal entities that include unlicensed providers as well as non-profit and non-governmental organizations (Basu, Andrews, Kishore, Panjabi & Stuckler, 2012, p.3). Various studies have disaggregated consumption of health care by income levels and appeared to show that the private sector mainly provide health services to more affluent populations. In the emerging economies, some nations are taking bold steps with the PPP’s by indulging the private sector in both infrastructures renewal and delivery of clinical services in the integrated partnership. Health care is a labour-intensive industry where clinical and ancillary services absorb most the expenditure allotted to many health systems; therefore integrating clinical services with provision of capital infrastructure in PPP offer unique opportunity for
Provision of healthcare by private sector in low and middle-income nations is often argued to be resourceful, responsible and sustainable compared to the public healthcare delivery systems. However, the public sector is often considered to be able to offer more equitable as well as evidence-based care thus, the literature review evaluates the performance impact of the partnership between private and public health sectors within low and middle-income nations…
Most citizens live under poverty, although there are countries like Malaysia which although is a middle income country it has achieved commendable development through the years. They are also characterized by lack of minerals and resources unlike the countries in the developed world.
The objective of this literature review is to provide an overview of innovation within the public sector, deriving from American, European, and UK theoretical and empirical reports from 1999 up to the present. Innovation – What is It? Successful innovation deals with creating and implementing new services, products, processes, and means of delivery which bring about a considerable increase in the improvement level of the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of outcomes, as defined by Mulgan and Albury (2003).
According to Modell (2009, p. 277-278), the theory mostly deals with the societal norms, values and requirements pertaining any organisation or business. As Modell explains, Institutional theory has been widely used in organisations whose main objective is realising profit.
There are several studies in accounting that have emphasized on the introduction of accounting system in the public sector for sustaining and enforcing the mechanism of competition-based resource allocation. Public sector organizations have also introduced development measurement system and methodologies of performance improvement in order to demonstrate higher accountability.
The PPPs are becoming important components of the UK’s modernisation agenda for the labour government. There are various issues linked to the move to go for modernisation agenda. One is politics. Concerning this, the work at hand presents the argument of Matthew Flinders regarding the politics of PPPs.
The author analyzes the connection between economic factors, culture, religion and the problem of obesity. According to the research, which was described in this work, more than 40 million were overweight children in the world today, around 30 million are in the developing and low to medium income countries.
The objective of this literature review is to provide an overview of innovation within the public sector, deriving from American, European, and UK theoretical and empirical reports from 1999 up to the present.
Successful innovation deals with
Among the top leadership factors that challenge the success of organizations in the private sector are issues of cultural integration and communication. It has been suggested that in order to effectively implement large
6 pages (1500 words)Literature review
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