Rejection of the null hypothesis leads to the acceptance of the alternative hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis states that there is a difference between the procedures. It is denoted by H1.
Assuming that the upstream BOD and downstream BOD are normally distributed, we test using significance level of 0.05 whether BOD increases at the downstream. The significance level of a statistical hypothesis test is a fixed probability of rejecting the null hypothesis H0 when it is in fact true. It is called a type I error and is set by the investigator in relation to the consequences of such an error. We want to make the significance level as small as possible in order to protect the null hypothesis and to prevent, as far as possible, the investigator from inadvertently making false claims.
Test Statistic: It is the random variable X whose value is tested to arrive at a decision. The Central Limit Theorem states that for large sample sizes (n > 30) drawn randomly from a population, the distribution of the means of those samples will approximate normality, even when the data in the parent population are not distributed normally. A z statistic is usually used for large sample sizes (n > 30), but often large samples are not easy to obtain, in which case the t-distribution can be used. The population standard deviation s is estimated by the sample standard deviation,
The observed t value is calculated from the sample used. Testing of means can be accomplished when the data are in the form of paired observations. We compute for the confidence interval of d - u in the situation with paired observations is based on the random variable
Where and are random variables representing the sample mean and standard deviations of the differences of the observations in the experimental units. This two-sample problem is essentially reduced to a one-sample problem by using the computed difference d1, d2, d3 dn. Thus the hypothesis reduces to Ho: =do
The present paper "Biochemical Oxygen Demand Hypothesis Testing" reveals a statistical study whereas the researcher would perform test on whether biochemical oxygen demand downstream is higher than the biochemical oxygen demand at the intake or at the upstream…
The British Cabinet System is based on the Westminster cabinet system. The traditional features of a British cabinet government are that there will be one Prime Minster who will act as the leader and commander chief of the nation; he can also hold one or two ministerial posts besides that of the Prime Minister itself.
A hypothesis is a claim that is made about a population parameter such as the mean (µ), a proportion (ρ), or standard deviation (σ) (Triola, p. 392). Hypothesis testing, therefore, involves testing claims, statements or assumptions about various properties of a population which is developed for testing purposes.
If BOD increases, it can be said that the effluent contains more organic matter than the stream can handle.
The null hypothesis, H0, represents a theory that has been put forward, either because it is believed to be true or because it is to be used as a basis for argument, but has not been proved.
The null hypothesis is stated to be true unless disapproved by the alternative hypothesis. Alternative hypothesis on the other hand is the hypothesis that there are random influences on the observation. Acceptance of the null hypothesis automatically leads to the
This paper explores the t-tests and z-tests. Quality standards of control would be applied to the company in making sure that the shipments do not go out with any non-conformance. Hypothesis Test 2 Looking at Extrinsic satisfaction by positionHypothesis Test 2 Looking at Extrinsic satisfaction by position.
Statistical importance is found when it comes clear that the findings in the samples are likely not to occur if the findings are not present in the case population (Black, 1999).
Hypothesis testing divides into two categories: the null hypothesis and the
During hypothesis testing the researcher allows themselves a confidence level as they are not 100% sure of the event happening (John, 2007).
Hypothesis testing is an essential part of our decision-making procedure that makes individual to anticipate. As a tutor in
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