Changing Housework Arrangement Between Couples Changing Housework Arrangement Between Couples Traditionally, women perform the household chores while men go out to work. This work arrangement can be traced to the hunting-gathering economic system wherein women stay in the community while the men went to the wilds to hunt for game animals or gather food in the forest…
Social change is brought about by the continued increase in the number of women who join the labor force in North America, Europe and Oceania starting the age of industrialization (Kornblum 2007). The increase in number of women joining the labor force (Bianchi et al. 2000; Kamo & Cohen 1998; Presser 1994; Shelton 1990, cited in (Omori & Smith 2009) resulted to a decline in the number of hours spent for domestic work (Artis & Pavalko 2003, cited in Omori & Smith 2009). The changing work division is attributed to the declining time that wives spare for household chores (Van der Lippe et al. 2004, cited in Omori & Smith 2009). The routine household works are influenced by cultural values and in line with the “male-breadwinner-and-female-homemaker arrangement” (Treas 2011, para. 6). Cleaning the house is associated with women while working outside to earn a living is the obligation of men (Omori & Smith 2009). However, in African American and Hispanic households, wives usually work outside of the home to earn a living (Omori & Smith 2009). Omori and Smith (2009) reported that women who hold higher or managerial positions, with increased status and income, tend to spend lesser work hours at home. Studies from several countries show that household work arrangements are influenced by values, beliefs and norms in the community (Treas 2011). Through long practice, many household chores were relegated to women. Men, influenced by the machismo concept and image would shy away from such type of chores, otherwise, they would be tagged as feminine. However, many sociological, societal and economic factors have affected this traditional system of housework. Many women have already attained higher educational degrees. The economic slump caused many men to lose their jobs. A new working system has likewise emerged that require employees to work at nighttime. These variables have affected the working arrangement at the level of the home. In Canada, couples with children 18 years old and below and were both working comprised 71 percent in 1990 (Marshall 1993). But around the 1980s, dual-earning couples composed only 30 percent of the group population (Marshall 1993). There are, however, tasks that women usually perform such as cleaning the house, washing and laundry, or meal preparation (Marshall 1993). House maintenance and repairs belong to the turf of men (Marshall 1993). The General Social Survey conducted by Statistics Canada in 1990 reveals that although the housework of wives who has a paid job outside decreases, husbands do not perform household chores proportionately to such decrease (Marshall 1993). This is exemplified in the meal preparation task where 89 percent of wives who did not belong to the workforce do it (Marshall 1993). But 86 percent still prepare the meals when they work part time, and 72 percent of those who are fully employed (Marshall 1993). Marshall (1993) also reported that for dual-earners that work full time, sharing of work at home is connected with the fulfillment they get “with several aspects of their lives: the allocation of household tasks, the time for other interests, and the balance between work and family (p. 4). Society and culture have an impact upon the division of domestic work anywhere around the world (Treas 2011). Treas (2011) in collaboration with Sonja Drobnic and other ...
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WOMEN IN ACCOUNTING Content Page Introduction 2 Literature Review 3 Historical Rise of women and their roles in accounting 3 Barriers and difficulties faced by women in the accounting industry 4 Work of various accounting boards in the UK 6 Methodological Framework 7 Presentation and Analysis of Data 8 Conclusion and Limitations 9 References 11 Appendix 12 Introduction Over the years, gender equality has become an issue that has taken a global dimension.
Traditionally, men are expected to earn the income for the family while women are left at home taking care of the children. This specialization based on sex has put women at economic risk and men at social risk as societal values and economic circumstances change and men and women are forced to perform non-traditional roles (Hook, 2010).
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The lemon juice might be the least effective cleaning agents among all cleaning agents. That is because it does not contain any antibacterial properties. But for handwashing shampoo, detergent and dish cleaning liquid, they contain -hydroxy-2',4,4'-trichlorodiphenyl ether (commercially known as triclosan), a common antibacterial ingredient used in liquid soap (Wikipedia, 2007).
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