Mottram (2011) summarized the fundamental reasons into four, namely: 1) for legitimate therapeutic use (prescription drug or self-medication); 2) performance continuation (treatment of sports injuries); 3) recreational/social use (legal and illegal); 4) performance enhancement. (p16) These classifications underscore the sheer expanse of the coverage of drug-use in sports and one may be sure the industry that supplies the requirements is lucrative as well. The extant literature on this theme – drugs and sports marketing – is equally expansive and comprehensive owing to this particular aspect in addition to the degree of attention it receives. Sports is a popular form of entertainment today. These two variables combined demonstrate how drugs and its use affect the public image of sports and in the process illustrate to how it is perceived and, hence, marketed to its public. The following sections outline the key issues of this topic in the body of literature. These issues include: the ban/restrictions on drug use based on ethical and moral considerations alone; the fairness of performance-enhancing drugs in competition; and how drugs negatively affect the public image of sports. Key Issues Balancing Act Many observers and scholars underscore that it is imperative to distinguish the use of drugs in sports as Mottram had previously done. The reason behind this lies in the way drugs are perceived by both policymakers and the public that patronize the sports industry. There are several studies that argue how the negative connotation of drug-use often put athletes and sporting bodies in dangerous disadvantage. For example, Fost (1986) cited the classic case of Rick DeMont, an American long-distance swimmer, who had to give up his Olympic gold because it was discovered that before the competition, he took a routine antiasthmatic medications which contained ephedrine – a prohibited substance. (p5) The idea, with DeMont’s example, is that if the aversion to drugs is misplaced, it could become unjust to the athletes themselves. This is also true with regards to the way the private lives of athletes are scrutinized and dragged in the way sports are regulated. This is represented by the constant debate with regards to the addition of recreational drugs as part of the restrictions in the International Olympic Committee’s drug-testing requirements. Schneider and Butcher (2001), commenting on marijuana use by athletes, stressed: The IOC has no good grounds for including marijuana on a restricted list, or for testing for its use. The mandate of the IOC for drug testing is to ensure that athletes compete fairly… Some people might argue that the use of marijuana is illegal (and perhaps also immoral) and so the IOC is justified in testing for its use. But what possible grounds are there for suggesting that the IOC has a role in enforcing the law? (p132) The difficulty for marketing here is how to reconcile the ethical and the practical needs of the stakeholders. A crucial position in this case is how many researchers find athletes as role models for individuals especially for young people. For instance, Martin and Bush’s (2000) findings - in their investigation on the role models for teenagers today - placed athletes on equal footing with direct role models, the parents as well as their favorite entertainers. (p441) Waddington, argued that drugs connote - in the perspective of the wider public – ...
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1.1Overview of the psychological factors effecting performance.
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12 Pages(3000 words)Literature review
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