In the paper “The Impact of Homophobia and the HIV/AIDS Epidemic” the author analyzes new viral diseases one by one appeared which threatened to annihilate humankind and bring it to extinction. The HIV virus or the human immunodeficiency virus is just as virulent as the hereinabove-mentioned viruses. …
exercise of due care when engaging in sexual activities such as the use of condoms. The Catholic Church urges sexual abstention or exclusively limiting sex to one's spouse.
HIV and the disease that it generated AIDS or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome had become a cause of concern after some 25 million people all over the world had died and an estimated 40 million had carried the disease since the virus was first identified in 1981 (World Bank 1). It had become so pandemic that WHO or World Health Organization expressed concern and determination to stop the plague at all cost. It was estimated in 2007 that 33.2 million people had been infected with the virus and that some 2.1 million people had died after suffering untold and painful organic malfunctions. Of these around 330,000 children had perished . WHO further declared that "AIDS remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide and the primary cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa" (UNAIDS, WHO 1,6). In North America in 2007, 1.3 million were estimated to be carrying within them the HIV virus while 31,000 were infected in that same year. Also in 2007 alone, 21,000 died (UNAIDS,WHO 7) . What is so alarming is the unusual rate of HIV infection in USA alone as the number of HIV cases escalates by leaps and bounds from year to year. In 1988, 100000 cases were reported. That doubled to 200,000 in 1990 and further balooned to 300,000 in 1992. By December 1992, AIDS had claimed 200,000 lives making AIDS the leading cause of death for men aged 25 to 44 and the fourth for women belonging to the same age group (Auerbach et al 1). What further distresses is that the 1.3 million North Americans carrying the HIV virus are certainly marching to their graves at the...
WHO further declared that “AIDS remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide and the primary cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa” (UNAIDS, WHO 1,6). In North America in 2007, 1.3 million were estimated to be carrying within them the HIV virus while 31,000 were infected in that same year. Also in 2007 alone, 21,000 died (UNAIDS,WHO 7) . What is so alarming is the unusual rate of HIV infection in USA alone as the number of HIV cases escalates by leaps and bounds from year to year. In 1988, 100000 cases were reported. That doubled to 200,000 in 1990 and further balooned to 300,000 in 1992. By December 1992, AIDS had claimed 200,000 lives making AIDS the leading cause of death for men aged 25 to 44 and the fourth for women belonging to the same age group (Auerbach et al 1). What further distresses is that the 1.3 million North Americans carrying the HIV virus are certainly marching to their graves at the most opportune time because there is yet no discovered cure for the disease. 3 What is even more bloodcurdling is that all these 1.3 million AIDS victims are potentialsources of further AIDS transmission that will result to an elevation of the disease to an even higher pandemic level. While Ebola virus was confined only to the sub-Saharan countries of Zaire and Sudan and the Avian flu was by and large restricted to HongKong and its environs and while SARS was mostly circumscribed in China, AIDS and its virus HIV are spread out all over the four corners of the world excepting only Antarctica. ...
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The magnitude of the illness has strained the economic state of one of the poorest countries in sub-Saharan Africa (Abdul, et al. 2010). Educating the people about HIV and providing them with antiretroviral therapy are the most pragmatic approaches of combating the epidemic.
HIV AIDS is therefore transmitted through sexual contact, sharing needles when injecting drugs, during childbirth and breastfeeding. As HIV AIDS produces, it damages the body's immune system and the body becomes susceptible to illness and infection. As the virus gradually attacks the immune system cells and progressively damages these cells, the body becomes more vulnerable to infections.
AIDS has virtually devastated the country. In 2009 alone, around 7000 people died from AIDS. The survival of the country is in jeopardy if some drastic steps are not taken. In Swaziland, It is estimated to have approximately 190,000 cases of HIV positive, which includes 15,000 children under the age of 15.
It is estimated that 5.6 million people were living with HIV and AIDS in South Africa in 2009 (Avert). This number is higher than that of any other country in the world. In 2009, an estimated 310,000 South Africans died of AIDS. HIV prevalence is high at 17.8 percent for those who are aged 15-49.
In 1982 the term “acquired immunodeficiency syndrome” was coined to describe the array of symptoms noted in individuals with AIDS. The underlying cause of the array is a depressed immune response characterized by the appearance of opportunistic infections, so-called because they are caused by organisms which do not cause disease in healthy individuals.
However, there are also CD4+cells within the central nervous system, these being the microglial cells which are of monocyte or macrophage lineage. These cells can be productively infected by HIV in vitro, and in vivo there is evidence of an HIV-induced cytopathic effect since syncytia-like, multi-nucleated cells are seen in the brains of HIV-infected individuals.
Immunodeficiency is a condition that leaves human beings susceptible to infection by the natural defect of the immune system or by viral infections like AIDS (Leksmono, 2008). In the UK, the death of a 49-year-old man in Brompton Hospital, London in 1981, due to a very weak immune system, may have been the first recorded case of HIV/AIDS.
In Zambia one quarter of the city population is infected and one in seven people are infected in rural areas (Feachem 2007:Internet). In contrast to this these tragic statistics, in Uganda, there is now a real prospect of an almost AIDS-free generation of high-school-age children (anon2 2006:Internet).
The author of the essay states that HIV is the virus that causes the gradual collapse of the immune system that enables AIDS diseases such as Pneumocystis pneumonia, Kaposi’s sarcoma and a host of other conditions to affect the patient. It should be pointed out, risk behaviors for receiving HIV are unprotected sex and needle sharing among injectable drug users.
In the first article HIV/AIDS Epidemic Still Ravaging African Countries by VOA’s Kim Lewis, the author dispels the notion that some of the African countries are winning the war against HIV/AIDS. The article asserts that the pandemic
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