Historical Background Women’s employment in corrections in a wide range of job is a relatively recent phenomenon. Prisons are traditionally male dominated, and recruitment was initially reserved for men. In the last thirty years legal barriers to the employment of women in correction have been removed. Larger numbers of women are now employed in this sector, but there are still issues relating to the concentration of female employees in certain jobs or facilities (horizontal segregation) and at certain levels in correctional organizations (vertical segregation). In the corrections context the segregation between administration and “frontline” staff, often expressed in the terms “contact” and “non-contact” may disguise deep prejudices about what kind of work is “appropriate” for men and for women. This kind of prejudice is hard to remove. The barriers which now exist are more likely to be cultural and social, as male employees seek to maintain their dominant position. Men are more likely to appoint men, and some of the prevailing cliches about violence and control favour a masculine view of the world. The issue of women being hampered in their career progression by the dominance of men is common in many areas of employment and not just in corrections. There has been extensive work on the “glass ceiling effect” which is what happens when invisible barriers are placed in the way to prevent women from having equal chances against men. (Wirth, 2001) Studies have shown that gender stereotyping has often used by male correction officers in the past to argue oppose integration of male and female staff. Women’s alleged weakness and vulnerability to rape from prisoners, for example, has been often cited as evidence that women officers in prisons are a security risk. In previous years subtle practices like height and weight requirements filtered out many women from particular roles, but nowadays the arguments used for the preferment of men are more likely to be made on the basis of security concerns, or alternatively the rights of prisoners, the majority of whom are men, to have their privacy respected by keeping their living quarters free of the presence of women. Scholars have pointed out that the evidence from the 1980s and early 1990s shows a greater awareness of the issues, but a mixed result in terms of actual career chances for Women. From the mid 1990s onward there is evidence of considerable intervention and positive action to address equal opportunities in correctional facilities. Key achievements such as the appointment of Kathleen Hawk as the first female Director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons in 1992 are evidence of this. Some of the barriers to women’s success are due to the long traditions that have been built up in training and on the job which unintentionally favour men. Feinman describes for example the tendency of women to achieve lower scores than men on a rifle shooting exercise which was addressed at first by offering women extra training. It was noticed that the rifles were unnecessarily heavy: “A new lighter and more effective rifle was selected, and women achieved very high scores immediately” (Feinman, 1994, p. 168) Other factors such as the location of many male prisons in rural areas can make it difficult for women with children to relocate in order to take up promotion opportunities. A minority of women in senior positions also means that there is a lack of female role models and mentors for future generations.
Gender and Sexual Studies. Literature Review: women in corrections. Introduction This literature review explores the thesis statement that “Despite gender differences and favoritism, women in corrections can have satisfying and gratifying careers.” …
Presently, China has an economy which is the third largest after USA and Japan. However, the surprising fact is that the retail food industry is still highly fragmented and dominated by small, independent, traditional family stores (3). The picture becomes clearer when one reads the ‘China’s Retail and consumer industry research report’ dated May 2011 from My Decker Capital.
A survey by the US Department of Justice of the prevalence of IPV used a broader definition of IPV: Allegation of intentional physical violence done, attempted or threatened between past or present partners (Smith and Farole, 2009). Earlier definitions of IPV are limited to heterosexual relationships, with males abusing their female partners.
Individuals, in non-governmental and governmental organizations, believe that the WTO is run under principles that are not genuine or legitimate. Their intentions have been questioned countless times (Davey & Jackson, 2008). There is suspicion over what they intend to do with some of the plans in place to safeguard the integrity of international trade.
The available methods include wave based, Lamb waves, PZT and 3D laser vibrometer, utilised in ascertaining presence of damages within aluminium structures. These could be identified as the major methods used in structural monitoring of aluminium structures (Balageas, et al., 2006).
The age range of compulsory education differ across countries and countries have various degrees of intensity and energy in implementing their compulsory education but a form of compulsory education is being implemented worldwide just the same. The young have to be exposed to education before they can even imbibe a portion of education.
Besides this, it is vital to know how each one distinguishes from the others, so mistakes do not take place and most importantly, no one is offended by what one does or says. Since culture is diverse around the globe, it is crucial in international marketing trends.
Almost 50 percent of its population comprise of Bahraini nationals while the remaining half constitutes non-Bahraini residents, among which a mass number is of Asian migrant workers those are mostly male (Central Informatics Organization, 2010). The population of Bahrain grew rapidly during the last decade, more specifically due to its foreign work force – in fact, its population in the year 2001 was about 650, 000 (Central Informatics Organization, 2001).
Xolair – Literature Review . Xolair is the trade name of omalizumab which is one of the selected humanized antibody drugs used primarily for the treatment of patients with moderate to severe allergic asthma associated with them. Under the trade name of Xolair, it is known as an additional therapy aimed to improve control over severe allergic asthma and other associated problems (including those ranging from vitro reactivity and reduced lung functioning to perennial aeroallergen) within patients of various ages (Rosenwasser, 2003).
It ends with a review of the current situation for women seeking to pursue successful and gratifying careers in corrections. Historical Background Women’s employment in corrections in a wide range of job is a relatively recent phenomenon. Prisons are traditionally male dominated, and recruitment was initially reserved for men.
Youth gangs are distinctive groups mainly associated with young adults in adolescents usually involved in extensive illegal activities in the society (Wiener 2005). These youth gangs develop negative identification with the agencies of law enforcement, as well as the neighborhood residents (Goldson 2011).
7 pages (1750 words)Dissertation
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