Running Head: GENDER BIAS Examining Graduate Student’s Perception of Gender Bias [Name] [University] Title: Examining Graduate Student’s Perception of Gender Bias Introduction Gender bias has been recognised as a ubiquitous but subtle inequity in colleges and universities…
In addition, the literature argues that the nature of gender bias changes as women and men mature from elementary school children through adolescence, to college undergraduate and graduate students (Kelley & Parsons, 2000) Given that men and women participate in gender bias behaviours, research provides limited qualitative insight to explain why men and women accept such behaviours in a classroom environment (Fritschner, 2000). This paper compares the perceptions of male and female graduate students regarding the influence of gender in the classroom. Once gender influences are better understood, women and men may also have the opportunity to improve their understanding of each other. Literature Review The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 outlawed discrimination based on several characteristics, including gender. However, longstanding attitudes, traditions, and practices continued to subtly subjugate minority groups based on race, gender, ethnicity, age, and sexual orientation. As noted by Haslett and Lipman (1997), "As overt, visible discrimination was challenged in the 1960s and 1970s, it became replaced by subtle and covert discrimination" (p. 36). Beginning in the early 1980s, popular research by Sadker and Sadker (1985), Hall and Sandler (1982), and others explored subtle mechanisms that marginalised women in the classroom. As defined by Mary Rowe (1977), gender bias produces "micro inequities" reflecting "everyday interactions in which individuals are often treated differently because of their gender" (Sandler, Silverberg, and Hall, 1996, p.1 0). Haslett and Lipman (1997) observed: Micro inequities are particularly ubiquitous because in each instance the harm seems too small to bother with. In the aggregate, however, they constitute a serious barrier to productivity, advancement, and inclusion. Micro inequities are particularly difficult to respond to because of the face issues involved as well as the seeming "smallness" of each single instance. (p. 38) As summarised by Fassinger (1995), research efforts produce conflicting opinions. For example, Hall and Sandler's widely referenced 1982 report provided anecdotal documentation of gender bias in academia, concluding that gender bias created a "chilly climate" for women in colleges and universities. However, Howard and Henney (1998) dispute the existence of a chilly climate. While Young (2001) explores biases that have an adverse impact on boys, most gender bias research examines the marginalising behaviours committed by men against women. However, gender bias includes more than men marginalising women's efforts. Haslett and Lipman (1997) observed that "women may discriminate against other women through their reluctance to support other women. And women may discriminate against themselves through limiting their own aspirations or an unwillingness to take risks" (pp. 35-36). King (1998) found that women unconsciously favor academic papers based on the assumption that the paper was written by a man. Research on gender bias provides a rich assortment of quantitative and anecdotal investigations into the nature and impact of gender bias in academia. As examples, Karp and Yoels (1976) quantified classroom participation among undergraduate and graduate students. Hall and Sandler's chilly classroom reports (Hall & Sandler, 1982) were based primarily on anecdotal research. Jamison (1999) evaluated interviews with more than 340 ...
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“RESEARCH AND THEORY METHODS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/gender-sexual-studies/44278-research-and-theory-methods.
The aim of most sociologists is to carry out research that can be utilized to societal policy and benefit. Others principally focus on polishing the theoretic apprehension of social procedures. To enhance this there several research methods used in this field.
Research methods Introduction In recent years, there have been an increasing number of debates amongst scholars, especially amongst those in the study of social and natural sciences, as regards the comparative advantages of qualitative and quantitative strategies for any undertaken research work.
Table of Contents Abstract 2 Part 1: Elements of Grounded Theory 4 Theoretical Sampling 4 Transferability of the Results of the Study 5 Part 2: Reason for Study Undertaking 6 Justification for Study Undertaking 6 Suitability of the Research Approach to Research Question 6 Limitations 7 Reference List 8 Part 1 Elements of Grounded Theory Levy (2006) authored an article entitled “Protective steering: a grounded theory study of the processes by which midwives facilitate informed choices during pregnancy” which used grounded theory as a methodology (p.
The process is applicable in all evaluation projects. The study is documented in a systematic way that enables other people to follow the same procedure when undertaking the same study. A research process is a multiple-step process whereby all the steps are interlinked with each other.
However the scientific meaning of the word research which is “performing a methodical study in order to prove a hypothesis or answer a specific question” (Shuttleworth, 2008) illustrates a more specific meaning. Most importantly it suggests a method. This paper will examine descriptive, historical, correlational and experimental research methods respectively.
Having a great variety of methods, a researcher is obliged to choose the most effective approach in accordance with the nature of the study. The appropriateness of research methods along with the high level of researcher’s knowledge and skills to implement specific research instruments causes significant effect on the success of the study and the validity of its findings.
The word validity is derived from the Latin word, Validus which means to be strong (Kendler, 2006). Validity in research therefore has to do with how strong the research is, in terms of its design, measurements and the conclusion. Validity can be defined as the degree to which a scientific study measures what it was really ion tended to measure.
However unless this is qualified by qualitative means (post positivism), the numbers alone can often be misleading. For instance Sales or Productivity figures of a particular time period are of little value unless they are further
lts and make germane conclusions, researchers require using specific research methods that can be characterized with a great abundance (McNeill & Chapman 2005). It is fair to state that each research approach has its pros and cons that is why for every research problem, the