The rate of criminalization was high in African Americans which lead to black power movement. In 1964, the Black power movement became the civil rights movement as the Democratic Party declined to seat Black Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) (Gilmore, 1998.pp.175). When Black Americans realized the fact that there was no hope for them to obtain equal rights as White Americans, this issue then became the cause of major disorders and riots all over the land. Racism has played an important role in making the criminal history of the United States of America. The inequality in terms of economic rights and social rights caused the Black Americans to become violent. The white people were the true players who fought battles against people of color and different races. Surplus The essential fact behind this crime scene was that moral panic was greater than the crime. There are many crises which combined and resulted in the form of prisons and prisoner. There are social crisis and economic crisis. The history of the crimes and prisons has roots indeed. The United States had the surplus ideology in the name of defence. Whether it was a conflict against Native Americans or the anti-capitalist movements there have been many crises in the history of the United States. During the period of 1970s the nation faced depression and there were surplus of crisis. The consequences of 1973-7 recession were combined with the surplus of 1981-4 recession and again in 1990-4. (Gilmore, 1998. pp 177). Prison Industrial Complex The Prison Industrial complex is the term first used by activist and the scholars to refuse the common thought that the increased rate of crime is the reason of constructing prisons. They argue that the main causes of the increased population of these prisons are profits and racism. There is exploitation of prisoners and the prisons by the big corporations, government and the communities (Davis, 2003.pp. 84). The 13th Amendment The thirteenth Amendment to the United States constitution officially outlaws slavery except as punishment for crime (Davis, 2003.pp. 23). On April 8, 1864, it was passed by the senate and adopted on December 6, 1865. There was a history of slavery in the United States and it was abolished later, but the concept was so prominent that white abolitionists even found it difficult to imagine Black people equal. After the abolition of slavery, its effects on the society were still present in the forms of lynching and segregation. There is a relation of prisons to the slavery, segregation and lynching because all these social institutions like prison were considered as everlasting as sun. It can be clearly observed that slavery resulted due to racism and there is several evidence of prisons working as racist institutions and they are obsolete, whereas racial discrimination is also observed inside the prison walls and among prisoners. We just consider racism in terms of black and white, but we ignore racism in term among colored people. After the September 9, 2011, the mass of people were arrested who were Middle Eastern, South Asian and mainly Muslims. So, the question arises are prisons racist institutions? If it is the case, then like racism the prisons are also obsolete. Prisons are a “geographical solution to socioeconomic problems”
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