This paper explores the evolution of the Geographic Information System or sometimes referred to as GI System. This covers more than twenty years of development, beginning in the 1970s until the present. The process reflects the rate and type of changes that transpired previously. …
terature on this subject, it is clear that these two are the core components of the system and the manner by which they rapidly evolve has driven the pace by which GIS has changed and will change over time. This is supported by the evidences that follows. Essentially, GIS is defined as “the system of computer hardware, software, personnel, organizations, and business processes designed to support the capture, management, manipulation, analysis, modeling and display of spatially referenced data” (TRB, p.10). As with any type of computing technology, the GIS's own system is consisted of three basic parts, namely, the UI or the user interface, the tools, which is differentiated according to functions, and, finally, the data manager. Put in another way, the components of the system can be said to include data, technology, application and humans (Lloyd and Bunch, 2003, p.828). All of which have their respective and equally important functions. While the GIS could run in a single computer terminal, the optimum framework requires several computers for GIS operations - desktop, client server, centralized desktop and centralized server (Longley et al. 2005, p.158). These variables and operational framework underscore why hardware and software are critical in the progression of the GIS development. Hardware The invention of the silicon chip back in the 1970s launched the fast paced computer development (Pasewark and Pinard, 2007, p. 263). It led to the viability of personal computers, which became the precursor of the current technology typified by smaller, faster, powerful and cheap hardware. To put this environment in context, there is the so-called Moore’s Law which states that computer processing chips double in power almost every 18 months, making computer more...
Thi essay stresses that the evolution of the GIS system can be attributed to several important technological developments. First, there are the advances in computing hardware, which made computers affordable and powerful. Today, many people and organizations can buy desktop systems not just in workplaces but even for home use. These are computers that can perform complicated tasks and functions with apparent ease.
This report makes a conclusion that in order to depict the significance of the evolution of GIS in the past twenty years, it is important to go back to the importance of geographic information. Accurate and reliable geographic data do not only mean effective geographic expeditions or land mapping initiatives. Rather, they are imperative in many other endeavors such as in running a city or in predicting a catastrophe. This is the reason why GIS is an important technological tool and how its evolution should be of interest for people. In the past twenty years, there were significant achievements and the evolutionary path points to a more sophisticated and intuitive system that would help people to make sense not just of the Earth but also beyond. It is worth noting that today there are just numerous geographies or approaches to geography. One of GIS’ greatest contributions, as evidenced by its evolution, is the universalization and consistency of geographic information. ...
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The main area of concern about GIS is its relative error in its methodologies. This has led to the coming up with several recommendations that are practical which assist in the location of sources of possible errors and define the data quality. Sources of errors in GIS can be classified into operational and inherent, with the two responsible for reducing the products quality generated using geographical information systems.
It is this paper’s position that the human race came about as they are now through the process of evolution. The author believes that living organisms today evolved through the process of natural selection and this has been the key to the survival of living things on earth.
Practitioners also define a GIS as including the procedures, operating personnel, and spatial data that go into the system”. For acquiring GIS, cost, risks, benefits, and impacts associated with the GIS are calculated, in order to continue with the current data and information products.
Programs and an interface make up the GIS software component. Their functions include generating, analysing, manipulating, storing and displaying geographic information or data (Delaney and Niel 2006). Examples of these include IDRISI, Microstation, SPANS and AutoCAD Map.
Magellan provides a comprehensive paperless geo caching that is easy to navigate along with rich graphics. Moreover, the color screen is sharp and easily readable in bright sunlight along with easy navigation with menus and visible graphics. Map screens are integrated with compass overlay in order to enable intuitive navigation along with customizable dashboard screen (, MagellanGPS - Go Geocaching with eXPlorist GC).
Since the human community is directly influenced by the changing seasonal climatic variations, the function of GIS in weather forecasting is prominent in the detection and estimation of unfavourable changes in weather conditions. GIS is the most reliable system that can be used in the field of exploration of landscape maps for the purpose of crime-zone detection and early identification of vulnerabilities to the society caused by human interference.
Adaptations are produced by natural selection and are well-fitted to their function. Many forms can be taken by adaptation, for example, an anatomical feature that allows the organism to access a new and valuable resource, a protein that
phenomenon in a wide array of fields, with proponents passionately defending it with scientific bases, despite the very lack of scientific visibility for such evolution alluded to in the definition above. To be sure, the argument extends to the very irrefutably evidence that no
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