n two million people from their homes and killed more than 200,000; famine and drought in the 1980th displaced millions; nobody knows how many lives and migrants it will take to end the south-north confrontation. The statistic of refugees in the Africa shows that Sudan is on top in the list of receiving countries with Zambia, Uganda, Kenya, DR Congo, Guinea and on the top countries of origin of the refugees with Burundi, Angola, Somalia and DR Congo (Tabutin, Schoumaker 510).
I think the most appropriate way to define the immigration/emigration patterns is to solve two problems. First of all, I’ll try to show the general political and economical line of Sudan history in the past 50 years. Secondly, I’ll divine country into four border regions - north, east, west and south – and analyze each region.
Sudan’s history began in 1956, after the declaration of independence from British-Egypt rule. Northern Muslims took majority in government and didn’t want to deal with South. Consequently, the first civil war has begun. During the war had happened few coups and in 1972 was signed Addis Ababa Agreement that established the Southern Sudan Autonomy. But, in 1983 second civil war (till 2005) was renewed because of applied Sharia’s law in the southern region that only strengthened opposition of South Sudan to the northern government (Lake, Rothchild 57). Emigration in Sudan has never stopped and was particularly intense during the two civil wars. These flows have been mainly directed towards neighboring African countries and to the Gulf region (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Oman). So, political instability provoked mass demographical emigration and intensive mass in-migration.
The economic policy was very ineffective. After 1956, independent government followed the colonial type of economy by assigning more land to both public and private sectors for export-oriented production. Government created new economy on the lands