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Coagulation: Overview, Pathways, Clot Formation, and Effects on Coagulants - Essay Example

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Coagulation: Overview, Pathways, Clot Formation, and Effects on Coagulants

The process of coagulation requires a platelet and a coagulation factor in order to function, which usually involves a cell and a protein. It automatically starts once the endothelium lining of a blood vessel has been affected due to damage (Hoffbrand, et. al 2006). When the blood is exposed to protein components, the site's blood platelets and plasma fibrinogens would react towards the damage and begin the clotting process (Mann, Brummel-Ziedins, Orfeo & Butenas, 2006). Primary hemostasis commences, wherein platelets would form a plug where the vessel has been damaged. After which, the secondary hemostasis proceeds concurrently, wherein coagulation factors located in the blood plasma would react towards the cascade to produce fibrin strands, in order to reinforce the platelet plug (Hoffman & Monroe 2007). The Coagulation Cascade The coagulation pathway is also referred to as the blood clotting system, which functions as a proteolytic cascade. The enzymes present in the blood clotting system are represented in the plasma in its inactive form, or as zymogens. These zymogens would then go through the process of activation by means of the proteolytic cleavage, which would trigger the active factor from the antecedent particle (Hoffman, et al. 2008). The mechanism in which the coagulation system functions is through a cycle of positive and negative feedback series that regulate the activation process. In essence, the objective of the coagulation pathway's process is to create thrombin. Thrombin would then produce the substance responsible for forming a clot, which is fibrin, which is a result of converting fibrinogen (Hoffbrand, et. al 2006). The process of creating thrombin is distributed into three stages: the extrinsic and instrinsic pathways serve as substitute conduits in producing factor X, whereas the final common pathway forms thrombin (Mosnier 2004). The formation of fibrin is achieved through two pathways of the coagulation cascade of secondary hemostasis. These two pathways are referred to as the: 1) contact activation pathway; and the 2) tissue factor pathway (Hoffbrand, et. al 2006). The two aforementioned pathways are also known as the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway. It is important to note that both pathways are equal in nature and would lead to one pathway (Hoffman & Monroe, 2001). The extrinsic or the tissue factor pathway is the main conduit in the instigation of the blood coagulation process. Both pathways serve as a string of reactions, wherein active components would be formed through the inactive enzyme precursor of a serine protease and its corresponding glycoprotein co-factor. These active components would then trigger the preceding reaction in cascade. These processes would then produce cross-linked fibrin (Mann, et. al 2006). Coagulation factors disseminate to the damaged blood vessels as inactive zymogens, and are usually composed of enzymes or serine proteases, which serve the purpose of slicing other proteins based on a definite serine deposit. Concessions to coagulation factors apart from serine proteases are glycoproteins (FVIII and FV) and transglutaminase (FXIII) (Hoffman & Monroe, 2001). The coagulation cascade is typically follows the division of three conduits. The aforementioned extrinsic and intrinsic pathways activate the common conduit of factor X, which is thrombin and fibrin (Hoffman, et al. 2008). Tissue factor pathw ...Show more
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Summary

Coagulation: Overview, Pathways, Clot Formation, and Effects on Coagulants Coagulation: Overview The process of blood clotting is referred to as coagulation, which is essential during hemostasis. Hemostasis takes place in order to terminate the flow of blood from an injured vessel (Hoffbrand, Moss & Pettit 2006)…
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