History 15 3.2. Basic Theory 16 3.3. Application 18 References 19 1. Enamel 1.1. Dental Hard Tissues Topographically, there are various tissues involved in the composition of teeth due to which physiological functions of the teeth have been possible. Since, the teeth have to undergo through various chemical and physical processes, therefore, they are susceptible to several compressive forces, wear and tear, and chemical acidic attacks from foods and bacteria. Hence, the tooth is protected by an external layer of dental hard tissue called enamel that shields the crown by a sheet of 2 millimeter occlusally and more in analogy to the cuspids and reduces cervically at the collar to just a few micrometers (Tencate 1998). There are three different dental hard tissues which are enamel, dentin and cementum. Ameloblasts produce enamel, odontoblasts produce dentin and cementoblasts produce cementum. - Enamel The most mineralized tissue within the entire body is enamel. It creates a layer of calcified tissue that is very thin, hard and translucent layer covering the anatomic crown of the tooth completely. Enamel is extremely hard since it primarily comprises of inorganic materials. Almost 95 percent of the enamel includes calcium and phosphate ions combined together to form strong hydroxyapatite crystals (Fincham and Belcourt 1981). Trace minerals are readily contained in hydroxyapatite forming the crystal lattice. These ions when charged negatively form carbonate or fluoride and also, they can form zinc, sodium, potassium or strontium when charged positively. The solubility of the enamel gets affected by the concentrations of these trace minerals. As for instance, the crystal structure becomes stronger with the presence of fluoride but its solubility decreases whereas its solubility can be increased by incorporating carbonate. Hence, the hydroxyapatite crystals contain less carbonate and more fluoride in the outer layer as compared to the crystals in the inner layer due to which the outer surface becomes less soluble in contrast to the deeper layers of the enamel. Almost 1 to 2 percent of the enamel comprises of organic materials, in particular the enamel-specific proteins that are known as the enamelins that have a high potential of binding hydroxyapatite crystals (Lussi and Hellwig 2001). Approximately 4 percent of the enamel composition comprises of water. All the components of enamel (water, organic and inorganic) are extremely organized. There are millions of carbonated hydroxyapatite crystals aligned in thin and long structures, with diameter of about 4 to 8 ?m (Boyed 1997). These structures are called rods that look like key-hole shaped structures when viewed in cross section. It has been found that the number of rods in a tooth varies from five million to 12 million in the lower lateral incisor and upper first molar, respectively. Usually, the rods stretch from the dento-enamel junction to the surface of the tooth at right angles. A rod sheath comprising of a protein matrix of enamelins is around each rod. Interrod cement or Interrod enamel is the space between these rods. Tiny spaces are present between rods where crystals are not formed, which are typically called pores. These pores enable the occurrence of fluid movement and diffusion making the enamel permeable. However, they also contribute to the hardness in the tooth and variations in the density due to which spots are formed that are more vulnerable to demineralization when the pH level of the
Cite this document
(“Susceptibility of mice teeth enamel affected by amelogensis imperfacta Literature review”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/health-sciences-medicine/11456-susceptibility-of-mice-teeth-enamel-affected-by
(Susceptibility of Mice Teeth Enamel Affected by Amelogensis Imperfacta Literature Review)
“Susceptibility of Mice Teeth Enamel Affected by Amelogensis Imperfacta Literature Review”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/health-sciences-medicine/11456-susceptibility-of-mice-teeth-enamel-affected-by.
Cited: 0 times
Susceptibility of mice teeth enamel affected by amelogensis imperfacta to caries, a study using x-ray microtomography Name: Institution: Course: Professor: Date: Table of Contents Table of Contents 2 1.Enamel 3 1.1.Dental Hard Tissues 3 - Enamel 3 - Enamel Mineral Composition 6 - Induced Caries 9 1.2…
The ATM system has successfully swapped the traditional paper based transaction system by introducing electronic means of money transactions. The increased popularity of ATM system has occurred due to its simplicity, rapidity, time flexibility and autonomous characteristics.
(2011), roughly 72.4 million people around the world and close to 15% of the couples in UK are facing infertility problems. To solve problems related to fertility problems, Assisted Reproduction Technology (ART) was developed as a promising solution. The in virto fertilization (IVF) is a good example of ART.
It is necessary to establish a normal uterine blood flow so as to ensure the development of a successful embryo. Around the world, many couples experience difficulty conceiving a child. As a result of the continual expansion of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART), people have learned to accept the practice of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), gestational surrogacy, the zygote intrafallopian transfer, the gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), oocyte, and embryo donation, gestational surrogacy, and cryopreservation (Zegers-Hochschild et al., 2009).
The increased popularity of ATM system has occurred due to its simplicity, rapidity, time flexibility and autonomous characteristics. With the development and advent of e-commerce, the mobile transactions have also evolved and gained
Even, though, many people are aware of this factor, some groups rarely take part in these activities. There are a number of social and environmental factors that affect the participation in sports, for
Studies show that early childhood cognitive development is strongly associated with education and economic positive outcomes. Household parental income also determines education activities and parenting. These in turn affect cognitive development, in that children