Imaging techniques that can be used for the screening and diagnosis of prostate cancer Introduction Prostate cancer results in large number of deaths among the US men, even though the disease itself cannot be termed as lethal (Jemal, Siegel, Ward, et al., 2008)…
Now the main challenge lies in characterising clinically admissible tumours from the ones that would have remained undiagnosed if the patient were unscreened. The current development of various imaging techniques and integration of molecular, functional anatomic data make way for better diagnosis and classification of prostate cancer. However, the appropriate use of imaging is difficult to define, as many controversial studies regarding each of the modalities and their utilities can be found in the literature. However, uses of imaging in medical practices have progressed slowly owing to the absence of a precise definition for its appropriate use. The current method adopted for diagnosing and managing prostate cancer follows the use of various pathologic risk factors such as clinical stage and Gleason score, and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The imaging techniques traditionally used for diagnosing prostate cancer can no longer be counted as reliable enough to locate the minute quantities of prostate cancer often seen at the presentation stage, as applicability of PSA serum has undergone large-scale stage migration. Current observations reveal that PSA tests provide very little data on the exact location and the extent of disease. Test limitations in this regard include failure to detect extraprostatic disease when PSA levels are low, lack of correlation with cancer volume mainly due to large contributions made by the benign part of the gland, and low specificity while detecting cancer. The advanced form of imaging techniques (molecular based) have primarily focused on elaborating the specificity and sensitivity of cancer diagnosis through knowledge of the particular characteristics of disease biology. Thus, evolution of modern imaging modalities has created a new scope for improved clinical diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Technological advances in the process of imaging have allowed for the use of disease biology, which helps in a more accurate capture of the location, extent of spread, and aggressiveness of the disease. This article, studies the various imaging techniques that can be used for the screening and diagnosis of prostate cancer. Discussion Brief background on named cancer including prevalence and current therapies The prostate is a small walnut shaped gland located in the pelvis region (between the bladder and the penis) and is found only in men. It covers the urethra, a tube that carries the urine from bladder to penis (NHS, 2012). Its main function is to take part in semen production. The prostate gland produces a concentrated white fluid, which is then diluted by the addition of a protein, referred to as prostate-specific antigen or PSA. The testicles, which produce sperm, then mix with the fluid, to form semen. As men get older, the prostate gland tends to get bigger. While this may lead to no clinical issues for a majority of the men, some may develop symptoms, when the gland becomes bigger and starts pressing on the urethra, causing urinary problems. This medical condition is known as benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH, and it mainly affects men over 50 years of age. However, it is not carcinogenic in nature and is treatable. Prostate cancer is one of the common forms of cancer seen amongst the UK men. Annually, around 36,000 men develop prostate cancer in the UK and account for nearly 25% of all the cancer cases reported in men (NHS, 2012). Reports show that, “ ...
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” The children come forward and pay respect to him, touch the cutout and one could see the charged emotions on their innocent countenances. After providing such a backdrop, the children are asked to pray and profound vocabulary of Christianity pours out, like flesh and blood, principalities and powers, rulers of the darkness in this world,
The cancerous cell spread to other parts of the body and can cause pain, difficulty in urinating, problems during sexual intercourse, or erectile dysfunction (American Cancer Society, 2010). Though the specific cause of prostate cancer remains unknown, several factors such as diet, genetic, medication exposure and viral infection, have been implicated in its development.
In cases where authors use the first person narration, they tend to be the speaking voices in such writing and narrations. Most writing deploys the use of the first person narration. In the narrative chronology, the writing usually takes even that are defined by time.
This paper aims to provide enlightened understanding of prostate cancer and the men who have acquired this disease.
In this paper, the pathology of this cancer will be discussed in order to have a thorough understanding of what a man with this type of cancer is undergoing.
Given the fact that in the United Kingdom, one in nine women will be diagnosed with Breast cancer in their lifetime and one in forty women succumb to it (Office for National Statistics, pg 59-70.), there is a need for serious consideration and efforts into improving the diagnostics and treatments that are available to treat it.
According to the definition of the US National Institute of Health, it is a type of cancer that "forms in tissues of the prostate (a gland in the male reproductive system found below the bladder and in front of the rectum). Prostate cancer usually occurs in older men." (Definition of prostate cancer) Prostate is a part of the male reproductive system which is located in front of the rectum and underneath the urinary bladder and surrounds the urethra.
Radiotherapy (RT) is perhaps the most common treatment of choice in patients with PC. However, results of treatment of PC are rather disappointing. A probable explanation for this could lie in the fact that more than 50% of PCs are seen in men 75 years of age.
signs that explain the view, an architect might consider the engineering techniques with which the castle was built, and historians might examine the usefulness of the castle in terms of its location and placement on the path of an invading army.
On the other hand, a geologist
he natural processes through utilizing the use of the best current knowledge and technology in order to avoid any related consequences of the industrial, chemical-based agriculture. As part of the significant outcome, farmers are able to minimize on the frequency of using
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