Cytoplasmic iron is in the reduced form and therefore ready to undergo oxidation. If nearby lipids are peroxidised, DNA and other macromolecules can be damaged (MacKenzie et al, 2007). This makes severe iron overload and iron deficiency equally disastrous. The concentration of iron in mammalian tissues is not very high because the iron is sequestered by several host proteins like serum transferrin and lactoferrin and is not readily available. The microorganisms which invade the body compete with transferrin for the iron. Secreting siderophores which bind with iron has the property of preventing invasion by pathogenic bacteria (Crossa and Payne, 2004). The growth and multiplication of microorganisms are hindered in the presence of iron present at physiological ph of the body as its solubility is poor. An organism which cannot avail of iron from its many sources would be unsuccessful as a pathogen. Gram negative microorganisms are recognized by the complexes of iron and siderophores at the specific outer membrane receptors. In Gram positive organisms, the iron-siderophore complexes are recognized by the specific binding proteins.
Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria take the iron from heme (Crossa and Payne, 2004). Gram negative bacteria use two methods. One is the binding to the outer membrane receptors and periplasmic binding of ABC permeases. The secretion of specialized bacteria proteins sequesters heme from other sources in the second method. Proteins acting like siderophores are called hemophores. Hemophilus influenza is known to have hemophores which captures free heme or from haemoglobin or heme from hemopexin. Pseudomonas organisms and Yersinia pestis are known to have a second hemophore system (Crossa, 2004). Erythropoiesis, immune functions and oxidative metabolism use iron (Munoz et al, 2009). Erythropoiesis is the production of red blood cells (RBCs) or erythrocytes, one of the many types of cells in the blood. The daily turnover of 1011 RBCs in the normal adult is possible through the iron. If damage occurs to RBCs by hemolysis or haemorrhage, the production is stepped up as a rapid response. The question of overproduction never arises as the erythropoiesis is well-regulated by key regulatory proteins to maintain the number of circulating RBCs within a normal range (Munoz et al, 2009, MacKenzie, 2007). The stem cell changes into the burst forming unit erythroid in the bone marrow in the first step of the formation of RBCs. The stages from the burst-forming unit erythroid to the orthochromatic erythroblast are influenced by erythropoietin. The orthochromatic erythroblast changes into reticulocytes circulating in the blood to become mature RBCs in another day. For the differentiation and maturing into RBCs, iron is an essential component along with vitamin B12 and folate. Oxidative metabolism Many metabolic processes essentially requires iron for their functions but an excess of iron also can cause damage to the cells through oxidative stress by the release of free hydroxyl radicals which are reactive and harmful (He et al, 2007, MacKenzie et al, 2007). Iron is absorbed but cannot be excreted ...
Cite this document
(“Chemotherapy and drug drug design Dissertation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/health-sciences-medicine/2421-chemotherapy-and-drug-drug-design
(Chemotherapy and Drug Drug Design Dissertation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 Words)
“Chemotherapy and Drug Drug Design Dissertation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/health-sciences-medicine/2421-chemotherapy-and-drug-drug-design.
Breast cancer can be identified as a health issue commonly faced by women. However, it can be mentioned that the diagnosis and the treatment of breast cancer had been a part of medical culture since ancient ages which can be dated back to the pyramid age during 3000-2500 BC (Donegan, 2005).
So, the overview regarding the idea of social care and its mechanisms has changed. This is represented in developing incorporated systems that support all aspects of life. Clinical social work has witnessed numerous development and support via Saudi Ministry of Health.
Prenatal and neonatal development has been shown to be affected negatively due to drug abuse. It is no secret that drug abuse during pregnancy causes a host of physical and mental disabilities in children that persist with them throughout their lives. This paper aims to look into Axis II type problems caused by drug abuse by pregnant mothers in order to see how drug abuse affects the child’s long term development.
The study of the relationship between immigration and crime is not one that can be simply understood as "will increased immigration lead to an increase in amount of crimes committed in a given area?" Such studies provide insight into the question of whether immigrants are involved disproportionately in the commission of criminal acts.
The scope of the illegal activities perpetuated by the criminals of the syndicate of organised crime in UK is broad and it includes trafficking in human beings especially women and children for sexual exploitation, illicit drugs, illegal immigration as bonded labour, and trading in prohibited items like tobacco or alcohol.
The problem is even more pronounced in the United Kingdom (UK). One of the reasons for such increasing expenditure is over-prescribing. Dukes, Mildred and Swartz argued that in many countries, over-prescribing has been used as a security blanket either against litigation, or as a stance in practicing defensive medicine.
I would also like to appreciate my family and friends for the support that they offered through resources and encouragements. My classmates also played a fundamental role in the success of the research and I acknowledge their role. Abbreviations FDA: Food and Drug Administration Abstract Information on application of pharmacometrics in drug development and associated regulation processes is limited to descriptive knowledge and this study proposes an inferential approach to understanding the role of pharmacometrics in drug development and interaction between drug development processes, drug regulation processes, and consumers’ perception of associated drug quality.
At the dawn of the modern era the cross-cultural exchange of goods, including psychoactive substances, accelerated as Europeans ventured across the oceans. This indicates travel has increased the spread of drug abuse throughout the globe where there was a scope of cross-cultural exchange of habits.
Research on attachment in children of substance abusers shows that insecure attachment is stable from infancy into early childhood when the mother continues to use drugs postnatal and the security or insecurity of attachment does not depend on the particular drug abused by the mother but rather on the quality of the postnatal rearing environment.
Cancer has had different definitions. An example of these definitions is that this is a disease that affects various cells in the body of an individual by making the cells increase uncontrollably and in a rapid way. Cancer goes on produce abnormal growths in the specific part of the body that it affects.
7 Pages(1750 words)Dissertation
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Dissertation on topic Chemotherapy and drug drug design for FREE!