Fifth most common cancer in the world today is bladder cancer. According to one study, 13,000 Americans might die from bladder cancer this year. If diagnosed early, the survival rate could be up to 95%.
We reviewed the current data regarding the impact of various treatments of bladder cancer starting from understanding the difference between normal and cancer cells and how these cells can multiply. DNA changes and abnormalities have been recognised and efforts are continuously made to predict the prognosis of bladder cancer and its recurring, from these abnormalities. Usually originating in bladder lining, in the transitional epithelial cells or surface cells, this cancer mainly affects older men in industrialised areas. 90% of these are mainly transitional cell carcinomas. At present there exists a plethora of treatment options like surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and various combinations of these treatments.
The research methodology applied for this research is the accepted, simple one. Evidences and research results are searched manually in research books, journals and materials. Material available in books has been accumulated as primary sources. As Secondary sources, Electronic sources and databases are used. Extensive use of the electronic sources like Google search is done. Another separate search is done on Medline, which has proved to be very helpful. Medline yielded a lot of material. But nothing outdated has been chosen. Only current material with absolutely relevant topics is chosen. Concentration is on improved treatment outcome and only such material is reviewed. Method used for the research and collecting the material is Qualitative.
Key words used throughout each stage of search: Bladder cancer, aetiology and risk factors, intravesical therapies, pathology, clinical staging, TUR, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, urinary diversion, recurrent bladder cancer, quality of life.
The main purpose of reviewing the current data is how to apply the current available research results regarding the aetiology, incidence and prevalence to the treatment of cancer patients. Another reason is to assess the risk factors involved in different treatments. Management of bladder cancer patients is one more purpose of this study. In Asia, bladder cancer is at its lowest and the studies might be able to throw more light on this lower rate of incidence. It is much more common among men above 70 and is highest among Caucasians compared to African Americans and Hispanics, according to Urology Channel, 2005. This information might not have much consequence on the treatment and management of the disease; but could be of greater significance for further investigative causal research. Cigarette smoking causes 50% of the bladder cancer cases. Exposure to carcinogens and anti-neoplastic drugs could be another reason. Researches are still establishing the genuine causes and possible reasons.
This material was chosen for review because of its relevance and importance. Bladder cancer is spreading in the industrialised nations and the treatment is not always successful. Quality of life and management sometimes are painful. Finding the best treatment would help not only cure, but also quality of life in advanced stages of the disease. It would be useful for fully and partially cured patients too.
There are many known causes for bladder cancer.