Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, which is responsible for uptake of insulin into the tissues. It also assists in lowering hepatic glucose production, by which plasma glucose levels are reduced. Any deficiency in the availability of insulin for this homeostatic function can lead to dire consequences in human body including chronic disease from the improper metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Diabetes Mellitus is the name of the chronic disease given to the deficiency in the availability of insulin. It is classified into two.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a catabolic disorder in which the insulin availability is very low or absent, which is caused by the destruction of the beta cells and presents at younger ages, usually before the age of forty years (Hussain & Vincent, 2007). In genetically prone individuals the insulin producing beta cells immune-mediated destruction of the beta cells occurs leading to an absence or very low availability of insulin and the disease Type-1 diabetes (Gandhi et al, 2008).
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on the other hand is a progressive disease that results from a set of complex metabolic disorders originating from coexisting defects in multiple organ sites that include insulin resistance in muscle and adipose tissue, gradually reducing pancreatic insulin secretion, lack of regulation in hepatic glucose pro...
During the course of the disease, the islets of Langerhans become individually smaller and are reduced in numbers and demonstrate evidence of a lymphocytic infiltrate. This is representative of the hallmark of the thyrogastric immune group of disorders. There also arises the question of concomitant glucagons deficiency in type 1 diabetes. There is evidence to show that glucagon secretion is elevated when diabetes remains uncontrolled, which acts to potentate hyperglycaemia. . Normalisation of glucose levels in the blood invariably causes a reduction in plasma glucogen levels. . Insufficient control of hyperglycaemia in type diabetes could lead to long-term vascular and neurological complications typical of continued state of hyperglycaemia, which could lead to morbidity and mortality associated with these complications. The continued state of hyperglycaemia makes patients with type 1 diabetes prone to severe micro-vascular complications, which include proliferative retinopathy and chronic kidney disease that result in blindness and premature death (Makinen et al, 2008).
Type 1 diabetes occurs in the younger populations and there is consistent evidence to suggest that type 1 diabetes results in cognitive impairments particularly with children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. The usual reason attributed for this connection between cognitive impairment and type 1 diabetes, is the greater susceptibility for the developing brain to be damaged by the recurrent hypoglycaemic insults caused to it in type 1 diabetes (Ho et al, 2008).
The clinical consequences of type 2 diabetes can be classified into two as microvascular diseases based on impact of type 1 diabetes on the finer blood vessels and macrovascular diseases based on