Masters
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Health Sciences & Medicine
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Control of the amount of glucose circulating in the body is essentially done through the interaction between nutrient, neural and hormonal regulation. The interplay between insulin, glucagons and circulating glucose reflect the critical homeostatic mechanism involved in this interaction…

Introduction


Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, which is responsible for uptake of insulin into the tissues. It also assists in lowering hepatic glucose production, by which plasma glucose levels are reduced. Any deficiency in the availability of insulin for this homeostatic function can lead to dire consequences in human body including chronic disease from the improper metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Diabetes Mellitus is the name of the chronic disease given to the deficiency in the availability of insulin. It is classified into two.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a catabolic disorder in which the insulin availability is very low or absent, which is caused by the destruction of the beta cells and presents at younger ages, usually before the age of forty years (Hussain & Vincent, 2007). In genetically prone individuals the insulin producing beta cells immune-mediated destruction of the beta cells occurs leading to an absence or very low availability of insulin and the disease Type-1 diabetes (Gandhi et al, 2008).
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on the other hand is a progressive disease that results from a set of complex metabolic disorders originating from coexisting defects in multiple organ sites that include insulin resistance in muscle and adipose tissue, gradually reducing pancreatic insulin secretion, lack of regulation in hepatic glucose pro ...
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