In fct, these secndry medicl rblems re the mst significnt rblems sscited with sinl crd injury in terms f bth cst nd medicl cmlictins. It is nt uncmmn fr rlyzed individul t exend between thusnds nd tens f thusnds f dllrs in medicl csts ech yer (Guttmn, 1976; Burke, 1975; Yung, Burns, Bwen & McClutchen, 1982).
ressure sres, fr exmle, hve yerly rte f incidence f ver 30% (Yung, Burns, Bwen & McClutchen, 1982). Freehfer nd Mst (1965) hve shwn tht bne frctures hve n incidence f 9.3%. It is hed tht functinl electricl stimultin (FES) my ffer mens f reversing sme f these secndry medicl rblems thrugh exercising rlyzed muscle nd incresing the bld delivery t the legs.
Hwever, questins rise s t the sfety f the technlgy. In wek, stertic bne, cn wered muscle stimultin cuse bne frctures in itself Wht is the incidence f electrde burns with cntinuus FES use Further, the cmlince f tient ultin fr this technlgy must be exmined. This ws the urse f the resent investigtin.
The subjects in these studies were 109 vlunteers. Eighty-three f the subjects in these studies vlunteered t rticite in reserch. These individuls were sked t rticite fr minimum f tw-yer erid. Twenty-six subjects were invlved in brd-bsed clinicl rgrm invlving FES nd cnventinl thery. The verge ge f the reserch gru ws 26 +/- 3 yers, wheres the verge ge f the clinicl gru ws 29 +/- 9 yers. f the reserch gru, 40 were ersns with qudrilegi nd 43 were ersns with rlegi. ll were dignsed s hving cmlete injuries. ll rtcls were shwn t ech subject. ll rcedures were rved by the cmmittee n humn exerimenttin.
Fur exercise mdlities were used here s described belw:
Uer bdy cnditining f nn-rlyzed muscles (weightlifting) ws ccmlished n secilly designed equiment. Secil hndles nd rm gris were used s tht ersns with qudrilegi culd ccmlish uer bdy weightlifting.
Functinl Electricl Stimultin (FES) weightlifting invlved electricl stimultin f the rlyzed muscles in the bdy. Electrdes were lied bve the muscle, nd trnscutneus electricl stimultin ws used t excite the mtr nerves t elicit muscle cntrctin.
T exercise given muscle, weight ws lied tht wuld resist the mvement f tht muscle thrugh lding f its jint. Electricl stimultin ws then lied with bihsic, squre-wves t ulse width f 350 micrsecnds nd stimultin mlitude, which ws vrible, frm 0 t 150 millims. The frequency f stimultin ws 35 Hz. s current ws incresed thrugh the stimultin electrdes, the muscle cntrcted. Current ws djusted s tht the muscle lifted weight ver erid f three secnds, held the weight fr ne secnd, nd then slwly reduced the munt f frce in the muscle ver nther erid f tw secnds; six secnds were llwed between the cntrctins. The exercise ws cntinued fr 15-minute erids. If exercise culd be mintined fr 15 minutes, then the weight ws incresed by ne und the next dy. In cntrst, if the exercise ftigued the muscle in less thn 10 minutes, ne und ws remved rir t the next dy's exercise.
Bicycle ergmetry ws ccmlished n mdified Mnrch bicycle ergmeter similr t ne described by etrfsky, Glser hillis nd Gruner (1982) nd etrfsky nd hillis (1983). The bicycle ws mdified with highbck set nd set belts t llw rlyzed individuls, such s the girl t sit cmfrtbly. new bicycle set ws designed becuse cnventinl bicycle set hs t