Essay sample - Critical evaluation of the use of indirect immunocytochemical techniques in diagnostic pathology

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Health Sciences & Medicine
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Immunocytological techniques as applied to immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an integral technique in present-day diagnostic pathology. This technique allows one to examine cytological details and tissue architecture better. …

Introduction

Immunocytological techniques as applied to immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an integral technique in present-day diagnostic pathology. This technique allows one to examine cytological details and tissue architecture better. Antigens introduced into the tissue will bind to labeled antibodies acting as specially designed reagents, and this technique allows one to assess the presence of specific antigen or protein. This binding event is visualized and examined under a microscope. Definition, Principles, and Development of IHC: IHC is a technique of antigen localization with antibody tagging and then tracking that antibody to detect the antigen. When an antibody is labeled by a specific technique, this can act like reagents in a designed antigen-antibody reaction. This reaction can be visualized by markers, such as, fluorescent dye, enzymatic reaction, radioactive tagging, or colloidal gold. These can detect cellular antigens in tissue sections. It started with discovery of immunofluorescence technique by Coons in 1941. Since then, techniques have developed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of this diagnostic tool, which basically detects antigen-antibody binding demonstrated with coloured histochemical reactions visible by light microscopy or fluorochromes with ultraviolet light. Later, techniques were developed to use enzymes like peroxidase and alkaline phosphatase or colloidal gold and the microscopy advanced to electron microscopy to make detections better ...
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