The intent of any communication is to elicit a response. Thus, communication is a process. It has two main purposes: to influence others and to obtain information. Communication can be described as helpful or unhelpful. The former encourages a sharing of information, thoughts, or feelings between two or more people. The latter hinders or blocks the transfer of information and feelings. In this section, we would be discussing the outline the basic model of interpersonal communication.
Many factors influence the communication process. Some of these are development, gender, values and perceptions, personal space, territoriality, roles and relationships, environment, congruence, and attitudes (Bush, 2001, pp.35-37).
From an early age, females and males communicate differently. Girls tend to use language to seek confirmation minimize differences, and establish intimacy. Boys use language to establish independence and negotiate status within a group. These differences can continue into adulthood so that the same communication may be interpreted differently by a man and a woman.
Values are the standards that influence behavior, and perceptions are the personal view of an event. Because each person has unique personality traits, values, and life experiences, each will perceive and interpret messages and experiences differently.
Personal space is the dist...
Personal space is the distance people prefer in interactions with others. Communication thus alters in accordance with four distances, each with a close and a far phase. Tamparo and Lindh (2000, p. 31) list the following examples:
Intimate: Touching to 1 feet
Personal: 1 to 4 feet
Social: 4 to 12 feet
Public: 12 to 15 feet.
Intimate distance communication is characterized by body contact, heightened sensations of body heat and smell, and vocalizations that are low. Intimate distance is frequently used by nurses. When someone who wants to communicate steps too close the receiver automatically steps back a pace or two. In their therapeutic roles, nurses often are required to violate this personal space. Personal distance is less overwhelming than intimate distance. Voice tones are moderate, and body heat and smell are noticed less. Physical contact such as a handshake or touching a shoulder is possible. Much communication between nurses and clients occurs at this distance. Social distance is characterized by a clear visual perception of the whole person. The person is protected and Out of reach for touch or personal sharing of thoughts or feelings. Social distance allows more activity and movement back and forth. Public distance requires loud, clear vocalizations with careful enunciation. Although the faces and forms of people are seen at public distance, individuality is lost. Territoriality is a concept of the space and things that an individual considers as belonging to the self. Territories marked off by people may be visible to others.
Roles and Relationships
The roles and the relationships between sender and receiver