Since nurses spend considerable time with these patients, and it has been found that educational and supportive intervention during the admission for a critical illness can yield very positive results in terms of patients' compliance or adherence to lifestyle modification measures, it is often prescribed that the nurses deliver patient education and promote healthy lifestyles in patients (Duryee, 1992, 217-225). However, it is always better said than done, since these measures must conform to the patients' beliefs, which always are not congruent. Apart from this, there are other known barriers for the implementation of such strategies, such as, communication barriers between the patients and healthcare personnel and their points of views. Since studies have shown better results with health education in terms of coronary heart disease (CHD), there has been considerable accumulation of literature as a result of consistent research in this area. It is expected that there would be two sides of this problem, the caregiver and the care recipients. Not only the patients' beliefs, the nurses' beliefs also may implicate the situation (Toobert et al., 2002, 574-585). To have a fair and balanced idea about the situation and the scenario, an extended literature review and summation of the resultant themes could present the established facts and identify the gaps in knowledge, so a study can be designed to arrive at a conclusion about the question in what ways the nurses can educate the patients to make an informed decision regarding their health in coronary artery disease.
Strategy for Literature Review
To build a scientific basis of evidence, a comprehensive literature search was undertaken and then evaluated critically. For the purpose of the review of literature, to support the rationale, need, and continuation of the project, this author conducted a literature search across databases. Those accessed for information included: CINHAL, Medline and Pubmed along with the Google Scholar internet search engine. Moreover MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL and Cochrane databases were searched to identify relevant literature on prevention of pressure ulcers. HighWire Press was also searched. The key words in the search included "cardiac nursing", "cardiac nurses", "role", "cardiovascular nursing", "intensive care nursing", "critical care nursing", "cardiac intervention nursing", "pacemaker units", "nursing," "clinical trials", "home cardiac nursing", "cardiac surgery nursing", "primary care cardiac nursing", "cardiac imaging nursing," "emergency cardiac nursing", "cardiac nursing education", and "cardiac patient education", "informed decision", lifestyle risk factors", "lifestyle modification", "health education", "patient beliefs", "barriers to communication", "nursing perspectives", "patient perspectives", "preventive cardiology", published in the last 10 years. Moreover, the references cited in the selected articles were also searched for relevant material.
Inclusion criteria for each article reviewed were answers to the following questions:
1. Was the article a valid research article
2. Did the article's study include role of cardiac nursing in area of cardiac medicine practice and applied to nursing practice in that area
3. Did the