Surgical procedures can be generally classified as either elective or emergency. Elective surgery aims to be carried out when the patient is in best health however before the surgery affects the quality and endangers their life. Clinicians decide if a planned process is 'urgent' or can be arranged at a time expedient for the surgeon and patient (Phillips, 2004; Smith, 2000).
Emergency surgery may be due to trauma or an accident, gastrointestinal obstruction, or from perforated viscera. The injury may be immediately critical, and hence the procedure is performed within 1-2 hours from admission. Other emergencies may necessitate procedures within 24-48 hours following the injury, although in both instances it may not be possible to preoperatively examine these patients. Information may be limited, and thus it is essential that the preoperative team communicate with each other to manage the delivery of safe patient care during this potentially distressing period in the patient's journey (Smith, 2000).
Preparing the preoperative environment starts before the patient arrives. ...