By reading and understating the research literature related to FAS will definitely help readers to explore the issue.
The main discussion of the paper comprises that how alcohol consumption during pregnancy can result in a child being born with FAS. It is noted that British experiences show that only about 2.5% of very heavy-drinking mothers produce such infants (Abel, 1996). But although not all the offspring of very heavy drinking mothers exhibit the full-blown FAS, many show signs of damage, for example craniofacial abnormalities.
In summary, the results suggest that since the results of the current study indicate that mothers of FAS children had more neuropsychological deficits than control mothers, leading to diminished self-regulation and alcohol abuse. There exists, also, the possibility that mothers of FAS children had more social and emotional problems than controls. The data suggest that mothers of FAS children felt socially more isolated and "more stressed" during pregnancy. The association between maternal depression, self-esteem, emotions and drinking was not assessed. Finally, small sample size limits the generalizibility of the results.
This study discusses that teratogenic mechanism of FAS remains unclear but is obviously not solely dependent on alcohol. ...