Alcohol is associated with a continuum of birth damage, which may be very serious or relatively inconsequential (Barrison et al., 1985). At the most serious extreme is a combination of developmental delay, growth retardation, neurological abnormalities and characteristic facial dysmorphology known as the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)…
By reading and understating the research literature related to FAS will definitely help readers to explore the issue.
The main discussion of the paper comprises that how alcohol consumption during pregnancy can result in a child being born with FAS. It is noted that British experiences show that only about 2.5% of very heavy-drinking mothers produce such infants (Abel, 1996). But although not all the offspring of very heavy drinking mothers exhibit the full-blown FAS, many show signs of damage, for example craniofacial abnormalities.
In summary, the results suggest that since the results of the current study indicate that mothers of FAS children had more neuropsychological deficits than control mothers, leading to diminished self-regulation and alcohol abuse. There exists, also, the possibility that mothers of FAS children had more social and emotional problems than controls. The data suggest that mothers of FAS children felt socially more isolated and "more stressed" during pregnancy. The association between maternal depression, self-esteem, emotions and drinking was not assessed. Finally, small sample size limits the generalizibility of the results.
This study discusses that teratogenic mechanism of FAS remains unclear but is obviously not solely dependent on alcohol. Experimental studies in animals point to mineral deficiency, particularly zinc, which in combination with alcohol intake may lead to serious birth defects. However, some women who have produced children with the syndrome have normal plasma zinc levels. Britain experience suggests that FAS is more commonly found among the offspring of very heavy-drinking mothers who are also socially and materially deprived. Confusion over the relative contribution of alcohol in causing this syndrome has led to the suggestion that titles such as 'Fetal Poverty Syndrome' or 'Foetal Alcohol Lifestyle Syndrome' may be more appropriate than Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. However, although the relative contribution of alcohol may eventually be shown to be less than that of other variables, the fact that reduction of intake in alcoholic women has been of demonstrable benefit to their offspring suggests that heavy drinking remains an integral factor.
Fundamental mechanism by which alcohol administration leads to the interruption of brain development has not been described definitively. Studies shows that Teratogenic effects due to FAS may adversely affect growing brain in multiple ways. These include direct effects such as ephemeral impairment of uterine vessels and reduced fetal cerebral metabolic rate. It also affects voltage gared ion channels, neuro transmitter receptors, signal transduction, transcription of multi genes, trophic support of neurons, and membrane fluidization.
Moreover, mechanism through which prenatal alcohol exposure could damage the CNS and lead to such devastating consequences as FAS is through interfering with the normal regulation of the genes that control brain development. Researchers have not yet been able to elucidate these processes, leaving a major gap in their understanding of candidate mechanisms underlying FAS. Although investigators have identified genes ...
Cite this document
(“Reproductive Toxicology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/health-sciences-medicine/302689-reproductive-toxicology
(Reproductive Toxicology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words)
“Reproductive Toxicology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/health-sciences-medicine/302689-reproductive-toxicology.
As a positively charged ion, methyl mercury combines with anions, such as chloride (Cl-), nitrate (NO3-), hydroxide (OH-), and sulphur containing anions, such as thio groups (SH). Indeed, the thio group on the amino acid cysteine and hence in proteins containing cysteine has high affinity for methyl mercury forming a strong covalent bond.
In the field of forensic, the study of toxicology is used to figure out the level of chemical contact and the level of injury caused by toxic substances. The study of forensic toxicology is conducted by a forensic toxicologist who needs to take into consideration the context in which the investigation is occurring (Levine 3).
Out of 23 pairs of somatic chromosome in humans, 22 pairs are somatic and 1 pair is sex chromosomes. The gametes or reproductive cells are haploid, with only 22 representing somatic chromosomes and one sex chromosome. In case of males, the sex chromosome may be of X or Y type, whereas in case of the female partner, this is universally only Y type During sexual intercourse, in the process of a male sperm uniting with a female ovum, millions of sperms approach a single ovum ultimately to be united, to create a zygote that has again the diploid chromosome numbers restored.
While developing useful things, various toxic materials are produced as by-product or as ingredient of useful products.
Scientists and society is gradually getting more and more concerned over toxic releases . These concerns are increasing the need for better data about thousands of compounds.
on, dichlorvos, ethion, chlorpyrivos, diazinon and fenthion; antihelminthic agents like trichlorfon, herbicides like tricresyl phosphate and nerve gases like sarin, soman and tabun (Katz and Brooks, 2010). Most of these compounds are either amides, esters or thiol derivatives of
This discussion considers the context of the long history of new technological innovations being introduced for their touted positive benefits to human life, which later turn out to be toxic to human health or the environment, or both, in the long term (Miller 2013; Brody
Toxicology is the study of toxicity and it covers all biological organizations. It embraces concepts from other scientific subjects to measure the degree of exposure as well as the modes of prevention. There are number of
Various biological species and elements including plants and animals have been genetically altered. For example in the case of breeding pets this process has been applied in order to generate offspring that have traits that are considered
One of the most currently discussed food topics relates to genetically modified organisms (GMO) and the safety of their consumption. The scale of the debate ranges from pure scientific arguments to anecdotal claims. The amounts of arguments from both the proponents and opponents of their used have been mounting at an increasing level.
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Essay on topic Reproductive Toxicology for FREE!