Depression is one of the most common forms of mental disorder. It has long time prevalence as high as 15%, and is linked with substantial morbidity as well as mortality, and inflicts a considerable burden in developing and also the developed countries. Based on the recent data, the unipolar major depression ranked the fifth leading cause of global disability, accounting for approximately 4% of the world's entire burden of disease…
The affective or 'mood' disorders are a group of related conditions including the depressive disorders, mania and hypomania, in which the primary disturbance is thought to be one of mood or affect. The separation of the anxiety disorders from the depressive disorders into distinct diagnostic groups is the subject of some controversy.
It is one disorder (Ormel J, Tiemens B., 1997) with serious interpersonal, personal and societal consequences, which affect about 15% of the broad population and accounting for roughly 10% of consultations in primary care. The same investigation revealed that, women are twice as probable to suffer from depression rather than men and symptoms most likely increase with age. There are also available studies which suggest that, the incidence of depression exist in younger
According to Baldwin and Birtwistle (2002 p 5; par 4), it is never difficult to recognize depression, for as long as the right questions are raised in the correct manner. More assessment of distinguished cases need not be exceptionally time-consuming. In fact, doctors and patients can select from a range of effective as well as acceptable treatments and people can then get better. Doctors the key characteristics of the depressive disorders, Piccinelli (1998) said, include: reduced energy, low mood and loss of interest or enjoyment. Some other common symptoms reiterated by the World Health Organization (2002), include poor concentration, guilty thoughts, pessimism, reduced self-confidence, ideas of self-harm or suicide, altered appetite and disturbed sleep.
Prevalence and Incidence
Surveys of the general population in the UK reveal widespread negative public attitudes to depression. In a 1991 survey of the public conducted on behalf of the United Kingdom Defeat Depression Campaign5, only 16% believed people with depression should be treated with antidepressants, while 90% thought counseling should be used, which has disputed efficacy in the treatment of depression. In addition, the vast majority (78%) of the sampled general population believed that
antidepressant drugs are 'addictive', probably confusing them with benzodiazepine anxiolytics.
At a personal level depression causes significant psychologic distress, reduces quality of life and increases the mortality from cardiovascular disease, accidents and suicide, which is the cause of death in approximately 10% of patients with a severe
recurrent depressive disorder. It can contribute to marital and family breakdown, and in depressed mothers may delay the development of their children. In addition there is a direct economic burden on society from health and social care costs, and indirectly through lost working days and the costs of premature mortality.
Therapeutic Interventions of Depression
There are many available therapies for depression and some include: 1. Use of Drug Therapy such as trycyclic antidepressants ( Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, Selective serotonin, Norepinephrine inhibitors); 2. Physical treatments like Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and light therapy; and 3. Psychologic Therapies such as Problem ...
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According to Grand et al (2007), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a type of psychotherapy that, works on the basis of how an individual changes the manner in which they think or feel towards a particular subject. Dobson (2001), on the other hand, argues that, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), refers to an array of techniques that have their basis on cognitive and behavioral approaches that endeavor to attaining changes in the manner in which people think and conduct themselves in the society.
Consequent to this practise, there have been noteworthy growth in the magnitude of studies on assessment, management, and provision systems of lawbreakers with developmental infirmity or mental disorder (Steele et.al 2006); a significant amount of this research shows that developments are beginning to support clinical work in the area of offenders with developmental disabilities.
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