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Human Tooth - Research Paper Example

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Beneath the dentine lies the pulp cavity which is embedded in the interior of the tooth taking the shape of the tooth itself, being largely located in the crown and then going downwards into the root where it diminishes. This cavity is filled with such pulp that is actually a vascular tissue consisting of nerve endings and blood vessels that enter into the pulp cavity through the root canal that is buried deep inside the root of the tooth. Nerve endings take the message to the brain and we feel pain when the tooth is damaged or is being treated. Blood vessels bring in oxygen for the cells of the pulpy tissue. Cementum is a layer that borders the root and its main purpose is to support the tooth. Jaw bone is the structure that holds the teeth and gum is the part that covers the roots and guards the jaw bone. 2. Enamel Enamel, a covering over the crown of the tooth, is known to be the hardest of all the tissues in the human body. Enamel, which is mainly made up of calcium salts, is hard enough firstly because it has to protect the underlying softer portion of the tooth called the dentin, and secondly because it has to aid in the crushing and chewing of the food. ...
These enamel rods have the lines of Retzius that are marked on the rods as developmental marks. Other than these lines, there are neonatal lines, imbrications lines, and perikymata which are some marks and grooves on enamel rods. The main proteins that are found in the enamel are enamelins and amelogenins. Sometimes, a membrane called the Nasmyth’s membrane is formed by the ameloblasts, which covers the enamel. This membrane gets stained very easily and can easily be removed through polishing sessions. Another problem is tooth decay which starts when the enamel is destroyed by the bacteria that cause plaque which is acidic in nature. 3. Dentin Dentin is another important structure in human tooth and lies beneath the enamel. It is not as harder as enamel although it is another hard structure in the body. It forms most of the tooth structure. The composition of dentin involves “crystals of carbonated apatite together with a small amount of collagen” (Weiner et al. 1999). Dentin contains both organic and inorganic substances. 70% of it is inorganic while 30% is the organic substance (Melfi, Alley and Permar, 2000, p.113). Dentin consists of a number of long micro tubules that “have an internal diameter of 1 micrometer and extend from just below the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) to the pulp cavity” (Martin 2006, 430). These tubules that run perpendicularly throughout the portion of the dentin are surrounded by peritubular dentin which is a mineral that is contained by the actual dentin that lies beneath the enamel in the crown of the tooth. When compared to the intertubular dentin, the peritubular dentin is found to be much harder and stiffer. The dentinal tubules have cell projections and the ...Show more
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Summary

1. Structure of Teeth Bell (2006, 1) defines teeth as “distinct organs of a body structure, attached to the maxillary bones, and formed for the purpose of dividing and communicating the food, preparatory to digestion.” The parts of tooth that form its structure include crown, root, enamel, dentine, pulp cavity, cementum, jaw bone, and gum…
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