In order to estimate their number, plating is done but plating cannot give the countable number on the culture plate and therefore the sample is diluted in a sequential manner to get the countable number of microbial cells. This process is called serial dilution (Schmitt). A serial dilution is therefore a process in which a sample taken either from the nature or from the animal or human. This sample is diluted in a sequential manner to find out the probable number of microbial cells in the given sample (Davis, 2011; Ford, 2010). Bacteria release certain metabolic products in its environment. These products could be useful for the humans or they may be harmful. The metabolites could be certain enzymes, toxins or chemical agents that prevent the growth of other microbes in its vicinity. Certain species of bacteria synthesize toxins that act as the chief virulence factors. When these toxins encounter eukaryotic cells they affect the cells in varied ways. Some of the toxins released by bacteria comprise- 1. Staphylococcus aureus ?- toxin 2. Shiga toxin 3. Cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 4. Escherichia coli heat-stable toxin 5. Botulinum neurotoxin 6. Tetanus neurotoxins 7. S. aureus toxic- shock syndrome toxin Toxins are known to alter the signal pathways in eukaryotic cells. It is therefore essential to analyze bacterial toxin and the potency which works as a toxic dose for the eukaryotes. Bacterial toxins could be defined as the substance that amend or modify the normal metabolism of the host cells while they cause harmful effects on the host cells. Some of the bacterial species namely, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, causing diphtheria; Bordetella pertussis, causing whooping cough; Vibrio cholerae, causing cholera; Bacillus anthracis, anthrax; Clostridium botulinum, causing botulism; Clostridium tetani, causing tetanus, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, causing bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome; all these diseases are the resultant of the toxins that are released by the respective micro-organisms (Schmitt). The altered eukaryotic metabolism includes damage to the cell membrane resulting in the cell lysis, damage caused by the alpha-toxin brings lysis of human monocytes, lymphocytes, erythrocytes, platelets and also the endothelial lining cells; inhibition of protein synthesis could be seen in Shigella toxicity as it directly affects the elongation of chain eventually leading to the cell death (Schmitt). In certain cases, bacterial toxins affect the protein synthesis and does not kill the cell, the secondary messenger pathway is inhibited, neurotransmitter release is inhibited or the host immune response is also altered. Such toxins are being released by Escherichia coli, called CNF type 1 and 2. They potentially binds with the Rho, a GTP- binding protein that is capable of regulating the actin cytoskeleton. Rho inactivating toxin is also released by Clostridium botulinum and also by Bordetella sp (Schmitt). Bacterial toxin thus plays an imperative role in altering the normal functioning of the eukaryotic cells. In certain cases such damages may be irreparable. On the other hand bacterial toxins could bring devastating implications. Constant research is going on to exploit these metabolic products for beneficial uses and to combat the diseases. An appropriate method is required to analyze bacterial toxicity (Schmitt). Serial Dilution Serial dilution is the process which is used for approximating
Cite this document
(“Analyze the Use of Serial Dilution in Determining Bacterial Toxin Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/health-sciences-medicine/45261-analyze-the-use-of-serial-dilution-in-determining
(Analyze the Use of Serial Dilution in Determining Bacterial Toxin Essay)
“Analyze the Use of Serial Dilution in Determining Bacterial Toxin Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/health-sciences-medicine/45261-analyze-the-use-of-serial-dilution-in-determining.
Cited: 0 times
Analyze the Use of Serial Dilution in Determining Bacterial Toxin Concentration" Introduction Bacteria are tiny microscopic organisms that are not visible through naked eyes. They are visible through the microscope. Direct count of these microorganisms is time consuming and tedious, moreover it requires a lot of expertise…
Regardless, of their origin most cancerous cells have certain surface antigens which distinguish them from the surrounding normal host cells. These antigens serve as an ideal target for elimination by the defense mechanisms of the body. In accordance with the theory of Immune Surveillance, cytotoxic T cells and Natural killer cells identify these abnormal cells and destroy them before they get a chance to develop into cancer.
In some situations, there are sexual elements involved in the murders. The murders are often completed or attempted in the same fashion and in most cases the victims share something in common. For instance race, occupation, sex, appearance, or age group. According to Borgeson, a killer is someone is someone who takes interests to have the life of a person. This is usually to ensure some secrets are kept.
Serial killers are thought to be undergoing some form of psychological and metal disturbance; hence, they obtain pleasure from the murders they commit. The main cause of mental or psychological disturbance for these offenders is normally traced back to their childhood growth.
Few behaviors can be identified in their childhood such as abusing animals and setting fires among others. As the serial killers grow, there exists certain danger signs which include desire to live alone, inability to perform well in school and family circumstances which ultimately contributes towards the future aggression in them.
Lastly a discussion will be conducted as to the ethical consideration of the aforementioned weighting and a discussion as to who should decide upon this weighting.
The use of cost effectiveness analysis to
We analyze here converging convex lenses and the associated lensmaker’s equation; concave mirrors and the associated equation for the focal length; and optical fibers and the total internal inflection used in light transmission in them. Finally, we
For example, Kodak is a trade mark of repute in the field of photography just as Rolls-Royce in automobiles and Coca-Cola in soft drinks. Reputation need not be as high as international to qualify for being reputed. Reputation is
2013). Proteins are the basis of living tissues. They are made up of amino acids coded by the genes. They are multi-performing substances for various biological processes such transport of oxygen, transmit cellular messages, and catalyze body reactions and many
The family had sprayed a pesticide that contained parathion. Parthion is considered a very toxic chemical. Even though all the family members were exposed to the same toxin, they reacted differently. The family members’ susceptibility
2 pages (500 words)Essay
Got a tricky question? Receive an answer from students like you!Try us!
Let us find you another Essay on topic Analyze the Use of Serial Dilution in Determining Bacterial Toxin Concentration for FREE!