StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

Paper Critique about Meningococcus - Essay Example

Nobody downloaded yet
Generally, the proteins on the surface of a bacterium known as antigens instigate the immune system to produce immunoglobulin proteins called antibodies. The antibodies have bactericidal activity that is, they can kill the bacteria. Such antigens generally constitute the vaccine against the particular bacterium. This paper describes how five antigens of serogroup B meningococcus were discovered by reverse vaccinology, which is a genomics-based technique that identifies, with the help of computer programs, slices of the bacterial genome that potentially code for the microbe’s surface proteins having antigenic activity. The predicted antigenic activities of the proteins are verified in mice after cloning and expression in E.coli, and using the fusion products obtained to immunize mice after purification. The five antigens identified were produced in a form that was suitable for large-scale production and made into vaccine form for human use by adding chemical compounds (adjuvants) that improve the immune response to vaccine antigens. Results showed that when the inorganic compound, aluminium hydroxide was used as the adjuvant, the vaccine elicited antibodies that could kill 78% of the 85 meningococcal strains tested. Strain coverage improved to 90% by using either MF59, a detergent-stabilized oil-in-water emulsion or CpG oligonucleotides activate cells of the immune system as adjuvants. The vaccine, therefore, has significant potential to conquer one of the most devastating diseases in children. Question 2 The vaccine described in this study acts against one serogroup of N. meningitides identified as serogroup B meningococcus (MenB). According to Giuliani et al. (2006), the annual incidence worldwide of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults is nearly 1.2 million. About 32% of meningococcal disease reported in the United States, and between 45% and >80% of meningococcal disease reported in Europe are due to MenB. Tetravalent vaccines made from the purified capsular polysaccharides of serogroups A, C, Y, and W135 have been successfully used to immunize adults for thirty years while conjugate vaccines, for use in all age groups, were developed a decade ago. A universal vaccine for meningococcal meningitis caused by all forms of N. meningitides would eliminate the disease forever. But the development of such a vaccine has been hampered by the presence of extensive variation in the proteins on the surface of the bacterium. The outer membrane proteins, in particular PorA in N. meningitides, is generally the primary target for a vaccine-induced antibody. In nature, the bacterium mutates constantly thereby altering the interactions with antibody which reduces or nullifies the efficacy of the vaccine. Therefore, the development of a universal vaccine has been a huge challenge. Moreover, unlike in the other serogroups of N. meningitides, a capsular polysaccharide of MenB is identical to the polysialic acid [?(2-8) N-acetylneuraminic acid] present in many human glycoproteins (Giuliani et al., 2006). As this makes the polysaccharide–protein conjugate vaccines unviable to combat MenB disease, there has been no universal vaccine available for MenB. Hence, reverse vaccinology had to be used for vaccine development against MenB. Question 3 The sequencing of the whole genome of MenB was necessary in order to submit the organism to reverse vaccinolo ...Show more
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Paper Critique about Meningococcus Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/health-sciences-medicine/45651-paper-critique
(Paper Critique about Meningococcus Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words)
https://studentshare.net/health-sciences-medicine/45651-paper-critique.
“Paper Critique about Meningococcus Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/health-sciences-medicine/45651-paper-critique.
  • Cited: 0 times

Summary

Paper Critique Question 1 Neisseria meningitides, commonly known as meningococcus, is a bacterium that can cause large epidemics of meningitis which is an inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (meninges). Acute bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency that can lead to severe brain damage and cause death especially in children…
Paper Critique about Meningococcus
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"Paper Critique about Meningococcus"
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Check these samples - they also fit your topic

Critique paper
The Hawthorne effect was presented in the article as one of the concepts in Human Relations. It was described as a method used in the training of people in an organization and the workplace based. There are different variations from the experiments undertaken in Chicago by Elton Mayo.
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Theory Critique Paper:
This critique paper is literally meant to criticize the reasoning of the authors in the given articles. This criticism will assist the student in the development of thinking and critical reading skills. In this discussion, the criticism will be based on the following articles.
5 pages (1250 words) Essay
Paper Critique
ere then selected and the percent cover of the most abundant space occupiers as well as biomass, density and size of herbivores were regularly monitored, in replicate experiments and throughout the year: Fucoids were not observed in the low tidal zones at sites protected from
3 pages (750 words) Essay
Neisseria meningitides or meningococcus
The vaccine described in this study acts against one serogroup of N. meningitides identified as serogroup B meningococcus (MenB). According to Giuliani et al. (2006), the annual incidence worldwide of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults is nearly 1.2 million. About 32% of meningococcal disease reported in the United States, and between 45% and >80% of meningococcal disease reported in Europe are due to MenB.
6 pages (1500 words) Essay
Critique about the reading
This critique will discuss four points -- Assessment, Reaction, Changes, and Compatibility (with the previous chapter). Chapter two does not stand alone very well as an appropriate work in the field of media. Mechanically it simply looks like it has not
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Critique paper
The use of fossil fuel is considered the leading producer of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Beforehand, there has been several arguments and school of thoughts about climate change. Notably, there are people who consider the
3 pages (750 words) Essay
Paper Critique
The setting is in Cochabamba, during the wars of water, the period during the privatization of water, when even harvesting the rain water was considered illegal. It is an adventurous journey that compares and brings
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Critique paper
Its peculiarities and effects on human’s body as well as memory are being examined by Christine Logel and Geoffrey L. Cohen whose main idea of it is almost undisputable positive outcome for weight loss through the setting of a particular life
3 pages (750 words) Essay
Critique paper
You’ve Got Cancer” where the author talks about her views about having cancer and how positive thinking may or may not be of help to patients. In the said essay, the aforementioned
5 pages (1250 words) Essay
Critique Paper
to not identifying with any religion in larger numbers, close to a third of all of them; in having the least percentage of people in the group being trusting of other people and humanity in general; and in having no faith even in the established social and political order as
3 pages (750 words) Essay
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment
Let us find you another Essay on topic Paper Critique about Meningococcus for FREE!
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us