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STI and HIV in Uganda - Essay Example

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2000, 7; Hogle et al. 2002, 2; Green et al. 2003, 7-8; Bertozzi et al. 2006, 331). What made this possible can be gleaned from the results of Uganda’s surveillance1 and program monitoring,2 which have been proven effectively useful to Uganda’s campaign against HIV/AIDS in two important ways: First, these have provided “reliable data on the magnitude, trends, and distribution of HIV infection and AIDS disease… provid[ing] the basis on which to design and implement effective interventions” (Okware et al. 2001, 1115); second, these have shown that Uganda’s success is attributable to a combination of different factors, most notably, the significant reduction in multiple sexual partnerships as a result of a broad-based non-electronic behavior change communication, a strong political leadership with active multi-sectoral response (Hogle et al. 2002, 3-5, 9-10; Okware et al. 2001, 1113), and a combination of focused programs (e.g. ...
disease and preventive practices), change in sexual behaviors (use of condoms, sexual relations with regular partner), support mechanisms (condom availability, effective treatment and management of STD cases), and documentation/reporting of STD/HIV cases (incidence of STD in men, and prevalence of STD/HIV in women) (Monitoring and Evaluation n.d.). As such, Uganda’s surveillance and monitoring activities have been aimed at capturing the trends in the population’s sexual behaviors, which include data on the following: age at first sex, age at first marriage, sexual relations with non-regular partners, and condom use (UNAIDS 1995, 11); and the population’s knowledge and perception about HIV/AIDS, STD prevention, role of VCT in preventing HIV/AIDS, prevention of mother-to-child HIV/AIDS transmission,3 HIV/AIDS-related services in communities (Mukaire et al. 2004, 1), covering both rural and urban areas, men and women across ages with specific attention to high risk groups – commercial sex workers (Kaiser Network 2008; Jitta and Okello 2010), police force (Womakuyu 2011), prisoners (UPS/UNODC 2008), pregnant women and adolescents (Hogle 2002; Neema 2000; Neema et al. 2006). Uganda’s STD/AIDS control programs exploit both the passive surveillance system – collects data from health facilities’ formal reports of AIDS cases based on WHO’s definition4 – and active surveillance system – collects data through a series of sentinel sites surveillance (Okware et al. 2001, 1115). Active surveillance in Uganda is conducted mainly using two complementary approaches. One common approach is the sentinel surveillance,5 established in Uganda in 1988 for STD and in 1989 for HIV/AIDS), using Antenatal Clinic surveillance (ANC)6 sites distributed all over Uganda, to ...Show more
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Summary

STI/HIV in Uganda Surveillance and Monitoring Cognizant of the HIV/AIDS threat – characterized to be both a crisis and systemic condition – that is posing against African communities (Poku and Whiteside 2004, xvii), the Uganda government, together with NGOs/civil society institutions, urgently prioritized and acted directly and openly on reducing HIV/AIDS prevalence in Ugandan communities (UNAIDS 1995, 5; Mukaire et al…
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