workforce, disabling more than 1 million people from strokes alone. The most common cardiovascular disease in the United States is coronary heart disease, which is responsible for one out of every five deaths in the country annually. Others are “hypertensive heart disease, angina and heart attacks, cardiac arrhythmias, and congestive heart failure” (Moini, 2010, p.23).
According to Jenkins (2003), cardiovascular diseases are expensive to treat, and place an immense burden on the health care system. However, prevention is far less costly to reduce some forms of cardiovascular disorders. (CDC, 2009). The main risk factors that lead to heart diseases include obesity, smoking, alcoholism, and lack of exercise (Moini, 2010).
physical activity levels, and making healthy food choices. Further, preventing and controlling high blood pressure and high blood cholestrol also contribute greatly to cardiovascular health. For instance, “a 12-13 point reduction in systolic blood pressure can reduce heart disease risk by 21%, stroke risk by 37%, and risk for death from heart disease or stroke by 25%” (CDC, 2009, p.3). It is vital that public health strategies and policies be implemented for promoting healthy living, supporting healthy environments, helping to control blood pressure and cholestrol levels, and providing access to early, affordable and appropriate treatment.
In remedial therapy for eliminating or reducing the symptoms of cardiac disease, the risk-benefit ratio has to be considered. Treatment consists of general management of the cardiac patient, the use of appropriate cardiac drugs, interventional cardiac therapy, surgical therapy, in-hospital treatment, immediate convalescence and long-term support (Selzer, 1992).
More than one-third or 80 million United States adults are currently affected by cardiovascular disease. The estimated number of heart attacks is 9,35,000 and strokes is