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If left untreated for a long time, this medical condition can cause several other complications culminating into the death. Causes of Atelectasis Pulmonary Surfactant is necessary for the reduction of the surface tension of the alveoli to prevent them collapsing. Sometimes infants are born with the congenital atelectasis for their lungs are not developed with the ability to inflate. This usually happens in premature birth of the baby where lungs are not yet developed enough to produce surfactant to keep lungs inflated. It takes away the deep breathing capability of the infant. The causes of atelectasis are many and varied. Swollen lymph nodes or tumors may be the reason for chocking the airway passage. Atelectasis may also cause due to the compression of airway passage. That is why asthma is one primary cause of lung atelectasis. Small chest wall is also a reason for the compressed airway passage and sometimes neuromuscular disease could also be a reason. (Alam, 2011) Among other causes, anesthesia is found to compress the lung tissues of patients who undergo surgery. The patient with enlarged heart due to heart problem will get their lower left lobe of the bronchus compressed resulting into atelectasis. Atelectasis could also be a result of neurological disorders. People having passed through accident trauma often get their lung punctured causing atelectasis. Smokers and people suffering from COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) are prone to develop atelectasis at some stage in their life. (Alam, 2011) Incentive Spirometry and Deep Inhalation for Healthy Lungs Incentive spirometer is a device which helps keep alveoli inflated. It also measures how well the functioning of the lungs is. Spirometer is a simple but an effective device that helps exercise the lungs of a person. During the use, Indicator can be placed at some desired level while breathing in as deeply as possible. The piston of the device rises toward the top. The person holds breath for 3-4 seconds and then allows the piston to fall to the original position. This exercise can be done as many times as possible. It is good for a person recovering from surgery to keep lungs inflated. In the absence of spirometer, deep inhaling and exhaling keeps lung fit and could be beneficial in prevention and reversing pulmonary complications. (Incentive Spirometry 1991) Intermittent Positive Pressure Breathing (IPPB) IPPB is a kind of mechanical ventilation device that is used to expand lungs using aerosol medication for short term or intermittently. It is not first choice of treatment in spontaneously breathing patients as other less expensive treatment methods can meet the needs of treatment. IPPB can be given in clinic, hospital and home settings. This is usually applied when other therapies such as incentive spriometry, deep breathing exercises, and positive airway pressure have failed to deliver the results. This is suitable when patient is unable to clear secretions adequately due to pathology limiting the ability to cough effectively. This is also suitable in an alternative to tracheal intubation. IPPB is also used for the patients to deliver aerosol medications who are found to be with ventilatory muscle weakness (R.C Journal 2003). For patients who suffer from acute breathlessness and excessive secretions, IPPB helps them for easy breath. IPPB has certain limitations in that it needs compressed air or oxygen and being a pressure cycled device the noncompliant lungs will receive ...Show more
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Summary

Atelectasis Introduction Partial or full collapse of a lung is known as atelectasis. This impairs the patient's normal breathing ability. There could be several causes for atelectasis but important thing is that the patient must get enough oxygen through any possible device before the root cause is eliminated…
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