StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

Pharmacology - Essay Example

Nobody downloaded yet
The study tells that use of natural products with therapeutic value is as old as human civilization. Harvey explains that prior to industrial revolution; minerals, animal and plant products were the main source of drugs. Many communities in different parts of the world have historically relied on natural products as the source of products. Tulp and Bohlin asserts that natural products have recorded the highest efficacy as a source of drugs. They further observe that plants were historically the most important natural source of drugs. However, Jensen et al. observes that Industrial Revolution and subsequent development of organic chemistry lead to the liking of synthetic products for manufacture of drugs. Tulp and Bohlin note that given the importance of plants as a source of drug, there have been research on ethno-pharmacology and toxicology which has helped to produce drugs from plants. Reliance on natural products as a source of drugs was overtaken by synthetic products because pure products could be obtained from synthetic compounds as argued by Newman. Moreover, it is easier to do structural modification to synthetic compounds which leads to the production of potentially safer and more active drugs. Furthermore, throughout human culture development, use of natural products is associated with magical and religious attachment. This stereotype thinking has worked against continued use of natural products as drugs in western countries where use of drugs sourced from natural products was considered as an alternative for the people with low income or those who are poorly educated. In these countries, reliance of natural products for drugs was also seen as a religious superstition that had no pharmacological importance. Despite these arguments, it is critical to carry out thorough evaluation on the place of natural products as a source of drugs in the current society. Umezu, et al (2002, p. 93) notes that throughout ages, nature has been the major source of most human medicines. Newman (2003, p.1026) notes that plants were the most used source of drugs with the first documented records on their use being on clay cuneiform in Mesopotamia while the best documented Egyptian medicine is that of Ebers Papyrus which was used from as early as 1500 BCE. Newman (2003, p.1026) explains that natural products are still available and being used as a direct or indirect source of leads to drugs against all classes of diseases. According to Harvey (2000, p. 295), it is not right to despise drugs from natural sources given that they were used traditionally, since at that time there was no systematic research on drugs and everything was based on trial and error. However, this has changed with the Fleming’s discovery of penicillin leading the more acceptance of the importance of natural products as source of drugs. Fungi as explained by Proksch et al. (2002, p.129) have led in breakthrough on antibiotics, anticancer drugs and immunosuppressants. In addition, there has been research on marine environment and this has bore fruits with several drug products in the market and others undergoing clinical trials. Weldon (2000, p.12948) explains that micro-organisms are also a source of drugs and asserts that ethnopharmacological, marine sources and microbiological sources must not be considered as exhaustive natural product for the manufacture of drugs. Plants as a source of drugs Rates (2000, p. 603) reports that about a quarter of all drugs prescribed international are from plants, pointing that 121 such active compounds are in current use. He further points out that out of the 252 drugs considered to by the World Health organisation as basic, 11 percent comes exclusively from plants while although a considerable number are synthetic, they are obtained from natural precursors. Some of the drugs obtained from plants include quinine and quinidine from the Cinchona species, digonin from Digitalis species ...Show more
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Pharmacology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/health-sciences-medicine/5075-pharmacology
(Pharmacology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 Words)
https://studentshare.net/health-sciences-medicine/5075-pharmacology.
“Pharmacology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/health-sciences-medicine/5075-pharmacology.
  • Cited: 0 times

Summary

The paper operates based on research question which can be stated as follows: How did people start using some natural products as drugs? The paper recommends for countries to invest in research that will enhance the identification of the right combination of natural products to treat a particular ailment…
Pharmacology
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"Pharmacology"
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Check these samples - they also fit your topic

PHARMACOLOGY
DEFINITION ESSAY: PHARMACOLOGY SUBMITTED BY: SUBMITTED TO: DATE OF SUBMISSION: INSTITUTE: Pharmacology is one of the multiple fields of study that fall under the broad umbrella of medicine. Other terms, closely related to pharmacology include pharmacy, pharmacist and pharmaceutical.
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Pharmacology
No inhalation of the spray should take place. An initial one-metered dose ought to be sprayed below the tongue at an attack’s onset, followed by another metered dose within a period of five minutes should pain relief not occur. It is recommended that it should not exceed two metered doses.
6 pages (1500 words) Essay
Pharmacology
Absorption of the drug is dependent upon the dose total, duration of exposure, concentration of the dose and the site of exposure (Kwan, 2001). The drug absorbed well in the gastrointestinal system but undergoes extensive first pass hepatic transformation.
9 pages (2250 words) Essay
Safety pharmacology
The development process of drugs incorporates the effective composition of evaluated chemicals thereby ensuring that they provide a solution to the disease by either killing the germ causing the discomfort thereby curing the disease or suppressing the effects of the external substance as is the cases with retroviral drugs thereby causing relief to the patients. However, certain drugs react differently with the bodies thereby causing more harm to the patients. The study of safety pharmacology therefore investigates such and seeks to develop safe drugs that do not inconvenience users by reacting adversely with their bodies.
5 pages (1250 words) Essay
Pharmacology
(6 marks) Body System Parasympathetic Activation Sympathetic Activation Clinical Symptom / Condition e.g.Heart - Rate Decreased heart rate Increased heart rate Bradycardia Heart – Force of Contraction Decreases cardiac contraction Increases the force of contraction Cardio vascular disorders like distorted cardiac rhythm Pupil Constricts the iris muscles to allow little light to pass to the pupil (Shiota and Kalat, 2012, p.
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
Cancer Pharmacology
He has given me great inspiration through his knowledge of Science research, giving me ideas on what to do further on in life. Paul has been a pleasure to work with, the assets I have gained have been invaluable and it has been experience, one of which I will never forget.
20 pages (5000 words) Essay
Pharmacology
tural configuration and physicochemical properties for providing a desired therapeutic effect, but it is not necessary that it possess the optimal molecular framework and properties to ensure delivery at the targeted site of action. In such cases only a small fraction of the
12 pages (3000 words) Essay
Clinical pharmacology
Oral anticoagulants are subjected to pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions. The former involves (1) Enzyme induction, (2) Enzyme inhibition, or (3)
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
Pharmacology Practical
The estimated IC50 value obtained in this experiment was 15.2 µg/ml. The literature value of IC50 is 0.75µg/ml using pancreatic lipase as the enzyme (Yun 2010). The experimental value was higher than
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Pharmacology ( Paramedic )
This is because when Prasugrel’s cost effectiveness was studied against another drug, clopidogrel, the cost effectiveness of prasugrel was found to in an incremental ratio of $9727 per life-year gained (Roe et al. 2012, pp 1297-1309). Comparing this with
3 pages (750 words) Essay
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment
Let us find you another Essay on topic Pharmacology for FREE!
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us