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Health sciences and medicine (28 exam questions) - Essay Example

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These disorders are present in only about 2.5 per 1000 live births, and will not be manifested is the offspring receives a dominant allele from either parent. Sex-linked recessive conditions are found on the sex chromosomes. Females, who have two X chromosomes will only show the condition if, like autosomal recessive conditions, they inherit a recessive allele from both parents. Males, having only one X chromosome, are always affected by X-linked recessive alleles because they have no other dominant allele to mask the affects of the single affected X chromosome (Kumar and Clark 2009, p. 43). The primary difference between autosomal recessive and sex-linked recessive is how males and females are likely to be affected, and how likely each are to inherit, a condition. Examples of autosomal recessive conditions include cystic fibrosis and sickle cell disease. Examples of sex-linked recessive conditions include hemophilia and red-green color blindness. 2. By using suitable named examples with rationale, discuss the similarities and differences between autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive conditions. Autosomal dominant conditions occur in diploid cells that possess at least one affected allele, meaning that only one parent needs to be affected for the offspring to show symptoms of the disease. If an individual has an autosomal dominant condition, then that individual must have had at least one parent with the condition though if the parent was heterozygous for the condition it may not be passes along to all offspring—only to those that receive the dominant allele. Autosomal recessive conditions however require that both alleles be affected by the condition in order to be expressed. This means that heterozygous parents may be carriers for certain conditions. Only if both parents pass the recessive allele onto the offspring will the offspring express the condition. This results in the chance that two heterozygous parents pass on an autosomal recessive condition of only 25%, whereas there is a 50% chance that a single heterozygous parents will pass on the condition to the offspring (Kumar and Clark 2009, p. 42-43). Examples of autosomal dominant conditions include Huntington’s disease. 3. Describe the differences seen between benign and malignant tumours. Use appropriate examples, with rationale, to support your points. Tumors arise from changes in a single cell that proliferate to affect areas of the body or even the whole body. Oncogenesis is a multistep process in which the malignant phenotype is expressed, which may occur due to both genetic and environmental factors. Anaplasia and metastatis are characteristics of malignant tumors, but no benign tumors. Anaplasia refers to the reversion of cellular differentiation and often includes an increased ability to multiply without differentiation. Metastatsis refers to the capacity of malignant tumor cells to spread across the body to adjacent and non-adjacent organs, often but not always through the bloodstream (Kumar and Clark 2009, p. 49). Benign tumors are nonprogressive and do not metastatis to other areas of the body. Some common examples of benign tumors include the common mole. Moles may sometimes develop malignancy over the course of an individual’s lifetime, however, so regular examinations by a physician are recommended. 4. Define with suitable examples, the following terms: aetiology, ...Show more
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By using suitable examples with rationale, discuss the similarities and differences between autosomal recessive and sex-linked recessive conditions. Autosomal recessive conditions manifest themselves only when an individual is homozygous for the affected allele that causes a certain condition…
Health sciences and medicine Essay (28 exam questions)
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