Furthermore, there are various psychological approaches to health and social care practices that one can adopt in order to improve psychological development (Moonie 2005; Brotherton & Parker 2008).The behaviourist perspective implies that changes in behaviour are caused by learning from external factors such as rewards and punishments. According to the work of popular behaviourists, Pavlov and Skinner, one learns from the consequences of ones actions; these actions are connected with the satisfaction (reward) or displeasure (punishment) that follows them, taking into consideration life experiences, genetics, individual progress and much more. The cognitive perspective is more about an individual’s thinking process, opinions, motivation and beliefs having an impact on behaviour. This inspires individuals to take responsibility for their own health and modify abnormal feelings and thoughts. Social learning is probably the commonest perspective; it is impossible for one to exist in a group, culture or society without conforming due to the social influence; an example of this would be smoking cigarettes because ‘all the cool kids do it’. The biological perspective states that behaviour is confirmed by genes, or rather the physical structure and function of the brain as it directs our behaviour; for instance excessive eating (which can lead to obesity).
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