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Depression - Research Paper Example

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According to the research findings for more than 2000 years, depression has been recognized as a clinical syndrome but unfortunately its paradoxical features andcharacteristics have not yet been fully comprehended. Depression is defined as “A term used to designate a complex pattern of deviations in feelings, cognition, and behavior”. (Beck et al 2009). Physical health, relationships, and cognitive performance are adversely affected by clinical and subsyndromal depression. In industrialized counteries, depression would be the second leading cause of mental illness by 2020 and is currently the major contributor to total disease burden. Depression not only confers misery upon the sufferers but also poses tremendous problems for their loved ones. (Sharpley et al 2010). In accordance with DSM-IV, “depressive disorders” are classified into three types, namely: major depressive disorder (further classified as single or recurrent), bipolar affective disorder (formerly known as manic depression), and subdromal mood disorders such as cyclothymia and dysthymia. The natural history of a disorder cannot be completely defined until the homogenous disorder hasn’t been clearly understood and similar has been the case with depression. Bipolar affective disorder (manic-depressive disease) was placed in a different category from unipolar depressive disorder (depressive disease) in the year 1966. The separation led to the identification of distinguishing characteristics of the two disorders. Accordingly, it was recognized that bipolar disorder is characterised by the expression of both mania and depression, whereas, unipolar disorder only consists of depression. Depression is not a spontaneous disorder but is a cumulative effect of various factors such as childhood trauma and sexual abuse. Throughout the 1700s, depression was known as Dealth Syndrome because of the fact that many sufferers’ achieved death by committing suicide. During the 1700s, Depression was perceived as a stigma and sufferers’ were usually hidden by their family members in an effort to avoid the ramifications of societal stigmatization surrounding depression. (Winokur et al 1996). Causes of Depression: In accordance with DSM-IV, males have a probability of 5-12% of developing depression at any point in their lives, whereas, females have a higher probability of 10-25%. In accordance with various recent studies, it has been revealed that childhood exposure to traumatic events has a strong positive correlation with the development of comorbid disorders such as depression. Moreover, it has been recognized that the effects of chronic abuse in children are devastating and such children have an increased tendency to develop posttraumatic disorder and depression later on in their lives. Other causes of depression include: suffering from a disfiguring or a debilitating disease, failure to excel in school, college, or professional life, lack of social support, alcohol and substance abuse, unemployment, and financial problems. (Nixon et al 2010). Treatment: The major treatment strategies utilized in the management of depression are as follows: A. Medical: Depression associated with reactive disorders is relatively easy to manage and in most cases does not require drug therapy. In such cases, management strategies usually involve psychotherapy. Anti depressant drug therapy yields excellent results in severe cases which are characterized by symptoms persisting for several weeks coupled with significant vegetative signs. Three groups of anti depressant medications are available, which are as follows: i. SSRIs and Atypical Antidepressants: These drugs are considered to be one of the frontline drugs in the treatment of depression. The popularity of SSRIs and atypical antidepressants is due to their ...Show more
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Summary

The researcher of this paper focuses on providing information regarding different aspects of Depression, a condition affecting 30% of the primary care patients. At the end the paper contains information regarding future research on the disorder. …
Depression
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