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This paper aims to identify major causes of CVD and key steps in CVD management from cohort study designs, as well as to develop leading questions on CVD mitigation for the local health department. Moreover, the paper will also present a rudimentary protocol for disseminating CVD information to local community leaders, while also making recommendations for prevention of CVD in the workplace.
There are numerous causes and risk factors of CVD with some like age, ethnicity, and family history being non-modifiable, while others can be changed or treated, such as hypertension, tobacco exposure, physical inactivity, obesity, high cholesterol, harmful alcohol use, and unhealthy diets. Berry et al (2012) found that hypertension is a significant cause for CVD, especially stroke and heart attacks, while abnormal lipid levels in blood including low levels of HDL cholesterol, high levels of LDL, high triglyceride levels, and high total cholesterol also cause CVD, especially stroke and heart attack. In addition, Huxley and Woodward (2011) also find that the use of tobacco over a long time, whether by smoking or chewing it, increases an individual risk of developing CVD, especially where one began to smoke as a young person, is a woman, or smokes very heavily. It was also found that passive smoking causes CVD. Physical inactivity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are identified by Appleton et al (2013) as major causes of CVD with the former increasing CVD risk by 50% by increasing risk of obesity and subsequent diabetes that, in turn, predisposes individuals to strokes and coronary heart diseases especially in pre-menopausal women. Finally, Van Dierren et al (2012) find that diets with high fat saturation increase CVD risk, while abuse of alcohol damages heart muscle and subsequent CVD and specific medicines like hormone replacement therapy and contraceptive pills ...