Got a tricky question? Receive an answer from students like you! Try us!

Brain mechanisms underlying Parkinson disease. - Essay Example

Only on StudentShare
Author : scotty02
Health Sciences & Medicine
Pages 4 (1004 words)


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a slowly occurring, neurodegenerative disease. It occurs as a result of degeneration of neurons within the substantia nigra, which is a region of the brain responsible for controlling movements…

Extract of sample
Brain mechanisms underlying Parkinson disease.

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a slowly occurring, neurodegenerative disease. It occurs as a result of degeneration of neurons within the substantia nigra, which is a region of the brain responsible for controlling movements. Degeneration of neurons leads to the shortage of dopamine, which controls body movements. With a reduction in the production of dopamine, the body suffers from impaired movements. Symptoms associated with PD start to show up later in life when a person attains the age of 40 years and over. Parkinson’s disease are terms used to distinguish PD from other forms of Parkinsonism (Pfeiffer et al 2012, p. 285). Discussion Being a chronic neurodegenerative disease, there are four main motor manifestations that characterize this medical condition. These cardinal signs are tremor at rest, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability. It is worth noting that the four cardinal signs of PD may not be present in all patients, but patients show at least two of the cardinal signs. The initial complaint from patients with PD is that of motor weakness; in most cases, there is a misdiagnosis on the cause of this sign. Later during the course of disease progression, signs of tremor and postural deficits may appear, prompting physicians to reconsider the cause of the signs (Pfeiffer et al 2012, p.291). Diagnosis of PD is based on neurological examinations and patient’s medical history, but there is a diagnostic test that can help in the identification of PD. ...
Download paper

Related Essays

Parkinson's Disease
The earliest known record of the study of Parkinson’s Disease is mentioned in James Parkinson’s “Essay on the Shaking Palsy”. The article describes the most common features of the disease which remain as the standard by which other types of parkinsonism are compared. The disease is mainly characterized by trembling of the limbs, muscular stiffness, and slow body movement. In addition, individuals suffering from the disease exhibit the following: standing in a stooped posture; walking in short, shuffling steps, and speaking softly in a rapid and even tone. In most cases, 60 to 80…
8 pages (2008 words)
Disease process
It has been noted that diabetes mellitus is a major cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) which will include congestive heart failure, coronary heart diseases, peripheral artery disease, cardiomyopathy and stroke. The risk of coronary artery diseases and congestive heart failure is relatively high in persons diagnosed with diabetes than in those without. Risk is also increased in patients who suffer from hypertension and dyslipidaemia or in those who smoke cigarettes and use alcohol. People with diabetes have frequent occurrences of hypertension which is a major risk factor for getting a…
3 pages (753 words)
The molecular mechanisms underlying differential gene expression control during Animals development
The role of proteins in cellular function is crucial because they produce the building blocks for cellular structure and form enzymes that catalyze all of the cell's chemical reactions, and regulate gene expression(Alberts, 2002).The transcription of each gene is controlled by regulatory region of DNA approximately near the site where transcription begins. Regulatory regions in animals are complex and act as tiny microprocessors, responding to different kind of signals that they translate and combine to switch the neighboring gene on or off. These switching consists of two types of fundamental…
4 pages (1004 words)
Parkinson's disease
Damaging approximately 60% to 80% of the cells producing dopamine would cause its deficiency and consequently lead to the appearance of PD motor symptoms. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NINDS (2013) refers to this brain cells impairment process as neurodegeneration. Prevalence and Incidence About 1 million people in the US suffer from PD with between 50,000 to 60,000 new cases being diagnosed annually. Worldwide, between 4 million and 6 million people suffer from PD (National Parkinson Foundation, 2013). It has been particularly noted to set in at age 50 to 65…
4 pages (1004 words)
brain injiury
Stroke- This one refers to the injury that occurs as a result of a vascular event. Traumatic injury- This refers to the damage that takes place when a force from the outside traumatically causes injury to the brain cells. Acquired injury- This is the last form of injury and it refers to one that takes place after birth not considering if it is traumatic or not. It also regardless to whether it has been caused by external or internal cause. Research shows that the number of people who are suffering from brain injury is high because there are those who live with this situation while there are…
14 pages (3514 words)
Alzheimer disease
These neurons and synapses are lost when the individual begins to develop Alzheimer’s disease. The cerebral cortex and subcortical regions are impacted because gross atrophy is found in these regions (Pashek & DiVenere, 2006: p. 143). The temporal lobe and parietal lobe witness degeneration which can lead to the progression of the disease. AD causes specific brain regions to shrink which has been corroborated by the presence of MRI and PET reports (Wilson et al, 2008: p, 45). Definition Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a form of dementia that is incurable. It is a progressive disease in which…
3 pages (753 words)
Is "brain dead" really dead?
The brain involves a mutual interaction with all the other parts, but the coordination and functioning specific body organ is integrative and independent unit. Therefore, a tenable rationale that equates brain death to a complete halt in the functioning of the whole body is physiologically and ethically mal-practiced in many brain examination, diagnosis, and treatment fields of medicine (David, 2009). (Key words: brain death, medical ethics, integrated organs, rationale, death). Introduction Brain death is a condition in which the role and functioning of the brain halts, and it is in a state…
4 pages (1004 words)