This paper shall consider the various studies which have been carried out on osteoporosis, including its management and treatment. It shall also consider the various exercise guidelines for the disease.
This disease is characterized by the decrease in the density of the bones, manifesting with a decrease in the strength of the bones which eventually causes the fragility of the bones (Shiel, 2012). Bones are made up of protein, calcium, and collagen which all combine in order to give bone strength. The spine, hips, ribs, and wrists are the most common sites of fractures and injuries for osteoporosis patients (Shiel, 2012). In the US alone, about 44 million suffer from low bone density, and this population represents about 55% of the US population above the age of 50 (Shiel, 2012). The global numbers more or less represent similar numbers, with Caucasian women often suffering fractures at higher incidence rates as compared to their male counterparts. The cost for the management of this disease registers at billions of dollars which does not even reflect indirect costs including days out of work and decreased productivity (Shiel, 2012). With the increased number of aging adults, the incidence rate for this disease will likely manifest higher numbers. Main elements affecting the incidence of osteoporosis include genetics, lack of exercise, low calcium and Vitamin D levels, previous history of fracture during adulthood, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, low body weight, and a family history of osteoporosis. There are various treatments for osteoporosis. In general, these treatments include medications, quitting smoking, reducing excessive alcohol intake, exercise, and increased intake of calcium and Vitamin D. This paper shall specifically cover exercise as a means of managing the disease. Literature review Various studies have been carried out on osteoporosis and its management, including the use of exercise as an intervention. In the paper by Arnold, et.al., (2008) the authors carried out their study in order to compare the use of aquatic versus land exercise in improving the balance, function, and