It was named ‘difficile’ because of the difficulty in culturing the bacterium on conventional media. The life cycle of the bacilli begins in the spore form. In unfavorable circumstances, they produce spores to allow them to live survive the poor living conditions outside the human body, such as bedding, furniture, medical equipment, as well as skin and jewelry of caregivers, so they can thrive once inside a new host. Upon ingestion, it germinates and colonizes the colon. At this point in their lives they also produce exotoxins A and B. The genes that encode these toxins, tcdA and tcdB, are regulated by tcdR and tcdC. All of these are found at the pathogenicity locus (Martinez, Leffler and Kelly, 2012). Pathophysiology of Infection Since the bacterium’s population is regulated by other microorganisms in the gut, oral intake of antibiotics that disturb these protective microorganisms can facilitate the pathological reproduction and toxin production of C. difficile, causing antimicrobial-associated, self-infection (Department of Health and Health Protection Agency, 2008).
Changes in the Prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection in United Kingdom Table of Contents Characteristics of Bacteria 1 Pathophysiology of Infection 1 Presentation of the Disease 3 Risk Factors 4 Importance in Public Health 5 Recent Clinical Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment Background 7 Basic Principles 7 Patient Approach 8 Laboratory Diagnosis 8 Classification of CDI 9 Rational Antibiotic Use 10 Other Treatment Options 11 Improvement of CDI Surveillance 11 Current Statistics on CDI Occurrence Prevalence 12 Total Bed Days due to CDI 13 Temporal Pattern of CDI Prevalence 13 Prevalence Among the Elderly 15 Points of Improvement Better diagnosis 16 Improving treatment of infectious …
Conclusion II. Chapter Two: Review of the Literature/Evidence A. Methodology (for the search & review process) B. Findings (integrative review of the literature) C. Limitations (of the search & review) D. Conclusions (based on the evidence) III. Chapter Three: Conceptual Model A.
The unnecessary use and over-prescription of antibiotics have been known to result in the development of resistance. One critical drawback of such practices is C. difficile infection (CDI), which induces diarrhea, colitis, and pseudomembranous colitis (Wilcox 2003).
Based on the findings, recommendations to modify or add certain organizational policies have been made. Throughout, this research strives to emphasize the role of human resources in organizational performance, and therefore the proposed changes to organizational policies are also HR oriented, whilst following legal, ethical and moral obligations from all stakeholders’ perspectives.
This practice, Pager and Shepherd (2008) note, reinforces inequalities, because as Fevre et al. (2013) explain, employment in modern society greatly defines one’s social membership. Meaning, the higher employment status you have; the higher you can be in the socio-economic ladder.
These plays tend to use the dynamics of power, money and lust to bring to light the impact of the negative relationships. The conflict raised in the scenario because of the characters’ attitude to pursue their desires explores the power of emotions and violence.
However, the more imminent threat lies in the fact that these two organisms are becoming increasingly difficult to treat with available medication which has left hospitals with prevention as their main cure for reducing hospital acquired
Clostridium difficile generally afflicts older hospitalized patients treated with antibiotic drugs. It has two forms: an active form that is virulent and infectious, and inactive form, which is called a spore, is not infectious. Spores can change into the active, infectious form inside the host body.
One critical drawback of such practices is C. difficile infection (CDI), which induces diarrhea, colitis, and pseudomembranous colitis (Wilcox 2003). The role of CDI in antibiotic-associated diarrhea was recognized in 1970s. In
In most circumstances it impacts adults who have been in hospitals or health care facilities for a considerable time period whereas it usually takes place after the use of antibiotics. Every year around half million people get affected by this bacterium
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