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Health Sciences and Medicine - Research Paper Example

With medically proven infertility, the desire to have biological children remains farfetched and surrogacy provides an avenue where childless couples can have children biologically related to them. In some instances surrogacy becomes an option where one partner in marriage has a genetic defect that the parents want to avoid passing on to their offspring. The joy of bearing children and rearing them provides parents with a wonderful experience of love and happiness .Surrogacy makes this possible for marriages not blessed with children through consensual arrangements, surrogate mothers give infertile woman a chance to enjoy motherhood and fulfill the societal expectations and gendering roles, it removes the social stigma, and mental anguish experienced by childless couples. The advancement of reproductive technology has made it possible for surrogate motherhood where consensual arrangements are made to facilitate women giving birth to children for other women. The biological mother intentionally gives up the baby, parental rights, and the physical custody of the child to the other woman immediately after birth. These arrangements are made and governed by contracts that stipulate the rights and responsibilities of the surrogate mothers and the commissioning parents, who initiate the arrangement with the signing of a contract enforcing the agreement. These legalize the surrogate mother giving up the child and the other couple taking up the child after birth. Surrogacy is vigorously opposed by many religious groups who believe surrogacy will destroy the sacred institutions of the family (Karen, 2012). Many religious organizations and societal cultures believe that procreation should be left to married persons and no other parties should be involved in the sacred process of procreation. Surrogacy has many different ethical and legal issues, which are complex and difficult to analyze and conclude. These issues challenge the traditional precincts of motherhood and parental rights. Children borne of surrogacy have two mothers; the genetic mother and the social mother, which raises social and legal complications. De-linking the child, motherhood, and parenting creates a big dilemma as the motives for child bearing changes. In surrogate arrangements, the fetal maternal bonding established between a baby and the mother during pregnancy is broken when the baby is physically transferred to the commissioning parents. This bonding is facilitated by oxytocin an important hormone that controls and regulates the maternal instincts of the mother. Oxytocin release is stimulated in the mother by contact with the baby and breastfeeding (Kennell & McGrath, 2002). The baby and the biological mother are linked physically and emotionally. The baby’s behavior is inherently conditioned to learn social behaviors from the people it interacts with as it has excellently developed psychological and cognitive facilities to learn from the biological mother and other people (Hobson, 2002).The breaking of this special relationship leads to adverse emotional problems in surrogate mothers who after carrying the baby to term become emotionally attached to their babies and it is the common cause of surrogate legal disputes in most parts of the world. The majority of surrogate mothers live with emotional trauma of abandoning their biological children for many years (Ciccarelli & ...Show more
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Summary

Running Head: Health Sciences and medicine Surrogacy Insert Name Insert Grade Course Insert 29 April 2012 The need for surrogacy arises due to the societal practices and gender expectations. A woman who cannot give birth suffers from psychological and social problems as there is a general bias of infertility towards women…
Health Sciences and Medicine
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