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Bovine Tuberculosis Assessment and Control in European Countries - Literature review Example

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Bovine Tuberculosis Assessment and Control in European Countries

Current research on bovine tuberculosis transmission and control methods is severely lacking in giving concrete and viable options for long-term management of this infectious disease. Introduction During the course of human history, disease has been an enemy that mankind has always strived to defeat. Not only can it strike at a human being personally by making them ill with some affliction or malady, but it can cause even greater trouble by striking at man’s food supply – the plants and animals that mankind has cultivated and domesticated – thereby causing mass starvation and death. The most deadly of diseases can do both by having the ability to affect both man and beast. One such disease is bovine tuberculosis. Caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis, it is capable of zoonosis – the ability of a disease to jump the species barrier and be transferred from animal to man or vice versa – and is transferred primarily through direct contact or inhalation of aerosols. It can infect most mammals, even man, although the most commonly affected species is cattle, from which a human can contract the illness by drinking milk coming from an infected cow. It is a respiratory disease, similar to human tuberculosis, which attacks the lungs and renders the sufferer to have difficulties in breathing. Left untreated it is eventually fatal for most animals, although human infection has become a rare instance due to pasteurization. Globally, bovine tuberculosis is considered as a major threat to domesticated cattle populations wherever cases of it occur. It therefore becomes imperative that measures to prevent and control the spread of bovine tuberculosis be devised. In the UK, the most commonly deployed means are the use of tuberculin testing to ascertain the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in existing animals, and the enforcement of culling techniques once diseased animals are identified. For the past five decades, these means and others have been reassessed and fine-tuned to provide better means of identification, measurement, and control of bovine tuberculosis. It then becomes a subject of interest to see how these improved measurements have managed to secure the big picture of the bovine tuberculosis situation in Europe and how the improved isolation and control techniques have managed to go towards combating bovine tuberculosis. Aims The aims of the following paper will be two-fold. Firstly, it will review the current literature on bovine tuberculosis and evaluate how it assesses the spread, transmission, and threat level of the current bovine tuberculosis situation. Secondly, it will aim to analyse the current methods of control being employed to manage the spread of bovine tuberculosis and whether or not they are efficient and efficacious enough to continue use, or whether there are grounds to advocate their discontinuation. As the disease is found worldwide and bears the capacity to jump the species barrier from one mammal to another, certain limits would necessitate to be in place so that the discussion does not become overly-long and extended. Therefore, the paper will employ a geographical boundary and delimit the analysis to an assessment of the bovine tuberculosis situation in European countries, primarily areas such as Great Britain and France. The same delimitation will also be in place with regards to discussing bovine tuberculosis control methods. However, particular cases or research derived from or conducted in other countries may sporadically be mentioned during the course of the discussion to further illustrate certain key points. Analysis of Bovine Tuberculosis in European Countries As indicated by its name, bovine tuberculo ...Show more
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Summary

Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic respiratory illness that poses a serious threat to domesticated cattle. It is widespread and prevalent throughout many parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa, and affects not only cattle but also other forms of mammalian wildlife. …
Bovine Tuberculosis Assessment and Control in European Countries
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