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Insulin (pancreas/type II diabetes) - Essay Example

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Insulin (pancreas/type II diabetes)

Some of its actions are rapid such as decreasing plasma glucose levels, whereas, others are delayed like prompting protein synthesis and lipogenesis which take place over a period of minutes to hours (Barrett et al 2010, p. 318). In the fed state, rise in glucose levels causes insulin levels to rise. Insulin, in turn, leads to utilisation or storage of glucose and storage of amino acids and fatty acids into proteins and fats, respectively (Harvey & Ferrier 2011). Glucose homeostasis Blood glucose level is primarily regulated by the hormone insulin whose main action is to decrease it to < 5.5 mmol/l. This action is carried out by increasing the entry of glucose in the peripheral tissues. In muscles and adipose tissues, this is achieved by increasing the number of glucose transporters (GLUT 4) across the cell membrane and thereby, increasing facilitated diffusion of glucose into the cells. In liver cells, increased entry of glucose is achieved by maintaining low levels of free intracellular glucose by induction of enzyme glucokinase via insulin insensitive GLUT 2 receptors (Harvey & Ferrier 2011, p. 323). Glucagon is a linear polypeptide with primarily glycogenolytic and gluconeogenic actions. Glucagon is the principal catabolic hormone, with actions reciprocal to those of insulin on intermediary metabolic activities. It has proteolytic, lipolytic and ketogenic activity (Barrett et al 2010, p. 328). Physiologically, plasma glucose levels are tightly regulated by alternate actions of theses hormones. Increased glucose entry in ? cells of pancreas stimulates insulin production and in turn, lowers plasma glucose. On the other hand, when glucose levels drop, for...
Physiologically, plasma glucose levels are precisely regulated by complex interaction of two principal endocrine hormones, insulin and glucagon, both of which are secreted by islets of Langerhans located in the pancreas. In type 2 diabetes, relative deficiency of insulin in the body tilts the balance in favour of the catabolic hormone glucagon which instigates hyperglycaemia, proteolysis, lipolysis and ketogenesis. It is a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiologies, characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with abnormalities in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. Epidemiologically, diabetes mellitus type 2 is a disease with significant socioeconomic repercussions. Diabetes is diagnosed according to the criteria for plasma glucose levels as defined by WHO and ADA. Treatment of this disease aims at decreasing insulin resistance, enhancing insulin secretion and exogenous insulin supplementation. ...Show more
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Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a lifestyle linked metabolic disorder, with multiple aetiologies, in which the main abnormality is chronic hyperglycaemia. Hyperglycaemia can result from defective secretion of insulin, insulin action or both …
Insulin (pancreas/type II diabetes)
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