Page No Abbreviations 1 Abstract 3 Chapter 1 Introduction 4 Chapter 2 Systematic Review 15 Chapter 3 Discussion and Conclusion 22 Appendix 28 References 44 Abstract This is a systematic review of the possible role of allopurinol in reducing blood pressure and whether it will emerge as a standalone future drug for reduction of blood pressure. The thirteen studies selected for the systematic review would show that allopurinol used for other conditions such as Hyperuricemia in patients suffering from kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, hypertension etc also had significant effect on reduction in blood pressure in the patients participated in the study. As there have been no promising results for significant reduction of BP even in hypertension and normotensive patients without any other disorders by administration of allopurinol , it is premature to conclude that this drug can be the sole drug for reducing BP. Allopurinol as an xanthine oxidase inhibitor can only be an adjunctive for having some mitigating effect on BP though it is a drug of choice of hyperuricemic patients. Chapter 1 Introduction Allopurinol is used in the treatment of Primary and secondary hyperuricemia, Chronic gout; chronic tophaceous gout; gouty nephropathy, Prevention of deposition of urate crystals in tissues and occurrence of urate renal stones, and As an antiprotozoal agent. It is also used in patients allergic or intolerant to probenecid and sulfinpyrazone. Some of the drug’s side effects are: exacerbation of an acute attack of gouty arthritis. To avoid these attacks colchicine and Indomethacin are administered before commencing allopurinol therapy. Hypersensitivity reactions such as pruritic maculopapular lesions and exfoliative dermatitis.. Peripheral neuritis. Necrotising vasculitis. Bone marrow suppression. Aplastic anaemia and formation of cataract (rare) and N, V, D. (Danish & Rabbani, 2010, p. 124). Allopurinol is a Xanthine oxidase inhibitor which decreases synthesis of uric acid In oral administration, Allopurinol is approximately absorbed by 80% with a terminal serum t1/2 of 1-2 hours. Allopurinol is a pro-drug and is metabolized by Xanthine oxidase enzyme to alloxanthine which in turn inhibits Xanthine oxidase enzyme and thus inhibits uric acid synthesis and increases the concentrations of hypoxanthine and Xanthine. Since Alloxanthine is long acting, Allopurinol should be given once daily (Danish & Rabbani, 2010, p. 60). Xanthine oxidase is the catalyzing enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and can further catalyze the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid.. (Danish & Rabbani, 2010, p. 5). Hypertension Hyperuricemia is a risk factor for vascular disorders such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease (Terkeltaub, 2011, p. 157). Hypertension and hyperuricemia generally coexist. People with hypertension of various ...
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Management of Pressure Ulcers among Chronic Care Patients
Pressure ulcers are one of the most common issues among chronic care adult patients. These pressure ulcers mostly arise from the limited mobility of the patient, owing to a variety of medical conditions including stroke, fractures, spinal injury, and similar physically debilitating diseases.
4 1. Introduction P. 6 – P. 9 2. Background P. 10 – P. 15 3. Methodology P. 15 – P. 20 4. Methods P. 21 – P. 24 5. Critique of the Six Articles P. 25 – P. 36 6. Reviews P. 24 – P. 34 7. Analysis P. 34 – P. 41 8. Discussion P. 42 – P. 46 9.
In first world countries the rate is 5 per 1000 births and poorer countries at 32 per 1000.  In the US, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD hereafter) occurs every 6.4/1000 births, according to a 2002 survey. IUFD is death before delivery that takes place from 20 or more weeks in gestation.
t al., 2011). It is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide (Bhattacharya et al., 2013; Hoey et al., 2013; Vymazal et al., 2012). Early detection of a stroke can best enable the acute care team towards treatment decisions to gain the most favourable prognosis for the stroke victim (Bhattacharya et al., 2013; Chalela et al., 2007; Vymazal et al., 2012).
Any imbalance in beating pattern is caused by Sino- Atrial node, situated in the right atrium. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation is caused due to diversity of acute disorders and WPW syndrome. It could also result from digoxin toxicity. Atrial fibrillation could be classified to silent atrial fibrillation, atrial fibrillation in the setting of failure of heart and atrial fibrillation within the setting of myocardial infarction.
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By careful choice of search terms, enough information was obtained and these terms are presented in a tabulated format. Additionally, the list of bibliographies made notable identifications of articles considered relevant for medical studies and these articles were carefully examined.
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The research covered a population of patients that have pulmonary edema who are brought to the emergency rooms or accident section for immediate treatment. Another premise is that positive airway pressure was administered to the patients as a treatment for the immediate existing condition.
e key to avoiding cardiovascular disease is through management of the risk factors like high blood sugar, HBP, or high cholesterol.one of the best ways to prevent it is through screening since blood pressure cannot be detected. Screening is the procedural set of tests used to
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