Issues between feminist and experts in international relations cannot be reconciled; the reasons could be that feminists and scholars of international relations are working on different realities and knowledge perspectives. Tickner states that silence occurs between feminists and IR women scholars because of their drawing on different realities and using dissimilar epistemologies. Some IR scholars refer to gender as “a category of analysis”. Gender differences must be appropriately understood with more constructive dialogues on both sides. In bridging the gap between feminist and IR scholars, Tickner focused on feminist answers to questions and ideas from ordinary IR scholars. Identified were three types of misunderstandings on the debate between feminists and IR scholars: 1) the misunderstandings about what gender means in personal conversations and actions; 2) the various realities or nature of things as expressed by feminists and non-feminists when they talk about international politics, considering that feminists also do not talk about the same subject matter of IR; and 3) the epistemological gap about the question that feminists do not deal with theory. Claims of gender neutrality in language are filled with masculinist assumptions. Feminists provide the meaning of gender with socially and culturally constructed words like “power, autonomy, rationality, and public,” words which belong to the masculine world. These words have opposites (weakness, dependence, emotion, and private) which refer to the feminine gender. Masculine characteristics are designated with positive values, and both masculinity and femininity are interrelated: to be called “a man” one must not exhibit “womanly” weaknesses. Martin Wight (1995 as cited in Tickner 1997) lamented the lack of international theories about Western philosophies because the international system was characterized with less intellectual and moral aspects. Wight’s thoughts had some significance in that feminists had problems with theories when referring to the international subject. Realist and feminist theories could not reconcile. IR scholars comforted with the Kantian tradition that promoted a healthy debate on social relations and not on anarchy. Linklater (1982 as cited in Tickner, 1997, p. 5) supported the concept that citizens should cooperate with other states to develop “free lives.” IR scholars posit that Kant’s philosophy on women depends on time which can easily be countered in a gender-sensitive world. Feminists believe that the Western philosophy is embedded with masculine traditions that cannot be depended upon in creating a gender-sensitive IR. Tickner concluded that feminists and IR scholars have never reached a point of agreement; instead, their conversations have always been misunderstandings about ideas and theories on feminism and international relations. Some of the reasons for their misunderstandings are the use of ontologies and epistemologies, but also on power differences. IR scholars do not know full well feminist approaches. Both sides have to settle their differences by means of constant dialoguing and understanding of the problems. However, feminists and constructivists can share the same ontology, although there are some differences. IR feminists see that gender and power should go together in the
Feminism and the Role of Gender Politics in International Relations This essay is about the correlation between feminist approaches and international relations. First, the essay will provide summaries of the reviewed articles followed by critiques of the articles and a conclusion at the end of the essay…
Women and Gender: Saudi Arabia Introduction The subject of woman and gender in society has always been of interest to scholars but it attained prominence in the twentieth century when women in western countries organized protests and initiated debates in order to obtain equal rights with men.
Most commentators agree that the establishment of solid education for both genders in Saudi Arabia is probably the key to “establishing a knowledge-based economy, opening up to the rest of the world by a process of inter-faith dialogue. Fostering a culture of moderation and dealing with other nations and cultures based on mutual respect.”1 Ramady adds that; “the country is also trying to meet the increasingly vocal aspirations of its female population through expanding their participation in the economy and society at large, but without compromising basic religious beliefs, customs and traditions.” (Ramady, 2010: 4) It is becoming clearer to researchers in the field of gender studies
While some authors argue that the desire to control arms, the sea or to be a superpower was the main cause of the Great War, others postulate that poor policies were to blame for the eventualities that led to the war. Yet again, other quarters assume that the war was nothing but a normal development in international relations following a number of events, resulting from the play of a number of factors.
Recently, in China, private enterprises have been providing a big boost to the economic development of the country. However, the hypothesis made in this paper points out that the lack of efficient management and overseeing by the human resources lead to a slowdown of several private enterprises that had grown successfully at the initial stage.
The companies that are operating around the world are considered major consumers of oil products on an international level. The countries are identified as facilitators for multinational corporations and therefore, the latter mentioned entities have significant and notable level of influence on international relations and politics
Literacy and education are fundamental issues that lead to differential access to education for men and women, among other factors. The education should be neutral. However, this position has been challenged because it places on women the burden for change with regards to their values, aspirations, and socialization.
A critical analysis of the document states that the recent global financial crisis that started in 2007 negatively impacted on various global financial institutions that were caught unprepared to deal with the situation. This impacted the operations of the global systemically important banks (G-SIBs) and it also impacted on the global economy as a whole.
It focuses on determining whether practical work is a source of motivation for students learning secondary school science. There are different ideas presented through a report from a research conducted on several case studies to support the idea that practical work motivates students especially at the lower levels of education.