Terrorism Executive Summary Terrorism is gaining increased importance in the agenda of most governments. Studies show that there are some preconditions and some triggers behind every incident of terrorism. The root causes of terrorism often include the foreign policies of superpowers, religion, economy, and social factors…
Terrorism has severe social, economic, and psychological impacts on the targeted people. Analysis proves that terrorism often has a genuine grievance to fight for. Also, the strategies they adopt are not considerably crueler than the strategies adopted by many superpowers. Thirdly, it has become evident that terrorism is considerably more unethical because it often targets innocent third parties as the victims. The solution does not lie in armed suppression, but in adopting peaceful ways. Attention should be given to the reasons behind grievances and they should be removed. Also, free communication and liberty should be encouraged in every nation. Lastly, instead of revenge and martyrdom, values like peace and cooperation should be instilled in people. Introduction Terrorism has become one of the most complex and oft-changing phenomena in the international sphere. As a result, it has gained an important position in the agenda of most nations. The surprising fact is that terrorism is present in various forms and various structures, and they have various motivating factors behind them. The root causes of terrorism One can find innumerous reasons behind terrorism when one looks into the works of various scholars who already studied the various aspects of terrorism. As a result, as Crenshaw (1981) opines in the article ‘The causes of terrorism’, it is difficult to find general explanations for terrorism. However, the scholar manages to divide the causes into two categories; the preconditions which are known as root causes and the precipitants which are known as trigger causes. It is possible to further the root causes into enabling factors which mean the factors which offer an opportunity for terrorism to come up, and situations which are direct motivations for terrorist campaigns (ibid). According to Ross (1996), the causes can be divided into three categories, namely structural causes, psychological causes, and rational choice. Following this, Gupta (2004, p. 19) introduced the argument based on ethnicity, religion, and nationalism. According to his opinion, terrorism takes birth when a leading figure manages to give a proper direction to the frustration faced by a number of people and manage to formulate a feeling of collective identity; and also the feeling of ‘we’ versus ‘them’ is successfully developed along with this (ibid). The work by O’Brien (1996) looked into the reasons behind terrorism. According to the scholar, there is a link between the foreign policy of superpowers during the times of international crisis and international terrorism. In order to substantiate his view, the scholar provides the example of the United States and Iraq. Through the work, the scholar proves that the possibility of terrorism increases when one party feels victimized by the superpower (ibid). Another study by Krueger and Malenkov (2003) named ‘Education, poverty and terrorism: is there a casual connection?” looks into the impact of lack of education and poverty on people’s tendency to become terrorists. However, after a thorough study of the situation in Israel and Palestine, the scholars reach the conclusion that there is no direct link between education, poverty and terrorism (ibid). In fact, the study observed that the terrorists from those areas were generally better educated that others. Also, the study reveals that the ...
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(Contemporary Issues in Conflict and Security Essay)
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