The Greeks defeated the Etruscans in both 524 and 474 BCE and probably proceeded to take control of Pompeii (qtd. from Pompeii before the Romans involvement, 2005).As evidence, the hill near the mouth of the Sarno River or Sarnus River was used as a safe port by Greek and Phoenician sailors (Wikipedia, 2005). This theory is supported by the architecture and art in Pompeii that was influenced by the Greeks, such as the temple to Apollo mentioned earlier. Around 420 BCE the Samnites came to occupy the city of Pompeii (Leppman, 1968). The Samnites seem to have imposed their language, customs, and civic organizations upon Pompeii (qtd. from Pompeii before the Romans involvement, 2005).
Rome entered onto the Pompeiian scene following the end of the Second Samnite War (290 BCE). The Romans landed their fleet at the mouth of the Sarno and sacked neighboring Salerno (Leppman, 1968). For almost two hundred years, however, the Roman rule of Pompeii was more a "matter of form than substance" (Leppman, 1968). Pompeii was under Rome's control, however, its inhabitants were practically independent (qtd. ...Show more