Cleopatra VII The Last Pharaoh of Egypt

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Cleopatra VII was the last Macedonian Queen and the last Pharaoh of Egypt. Her exact birth date and the name of her true mother are still debated to this day. According to Chauveau's book Cleopatra: Beyond the Myth, it's possible that Cleopatra is Ptolemy XII's daughter by his sister-wife, Cleopatra Tryphene, who disappeared around the time Cleopatra was born (Chauveau 8-9).


Her father requested that Cleopatra and his oldest son, Ptolemy XIII, become joint rulers, and made Rome the guardian of the Egyptian state (brother-sister marriages were common among members of the Egyptian ruling house).
Cleopatra was one of six children born to Ptolemy the Flute Player, four girls and two boys. Both boys Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV didn't live past adolescence. They served as co-throne keepers with Cleopatra VII, as women were prohibited to rule by themselves.
Cleopatra and her brother started a civil war between themselves, which resulted in her being forced into exile to Syria. Her sister Arsinoe accompanied her. In Syria, she raised an army and started back to Egypt to reclaim her throne. In 48 BC she was on the eastern frontier of Egypt with her newly acquired army preparing to attack her brother's army. This battle was never fought because Julius Caesar, who had arrived at Alexandria in pursuit of Pompey, and claimed his right to arbitrate Cleopatra and Ptolemy's dispute as the representative of Rome. When Pompey, fleeing the victorious Julius Caesar, arrived in Alexandria seeking sanctuary, Ptolemy had him murdered in order to ingratiate himself with Caesar. ...
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