Scientific research lead to the advent of numerous devices like the telephone, phonograph, elevator, ice machine, gasoline powered cars and light bulbs, to name a few. In the field of entertainment, new technologies such as the radio and moving pictures became popular.
The huge improvements in the process of obtaining and working on raw materials affected primarily metallurgy and chemistry. Applied first in coal mining and textiles, the new techniques, new machines, and new methods rapidly spread into other industrial areas. The application of steam to transportation led to the railroad system, which in turn generated dozens of other technical changes in iron and steel, bridge building, communication and organization ("The Industrial Revolution").
An increase in scientific publications was facilitated by the network of informal societies like the Lunar Society of Birmingham, in which members met to discuss science and its application to manufacturing. Some of these societies published volumes of proceedings and transactions, new inventions, as well as papers about them. Scientific research post Industrial revolution has also resulted in advancements in chemical and biological warfare as well as in nuclear weaponry.
The term Romantic covers most of the music, art and literature of Western civilization from the nineteenth century.