Early Complex Societies

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This discussion focuses the approximate period of the inception of early complex societies, namely 3,500 B.C.E 500 B.C.E. Their rise and fall where closely associated with their internal dynamism or conservatism and how this affected their ability to adapt to their social and natural environment.


During this period society consisted of small groups and developed language, rituals, and used basic tools made of stone. The Neolithic Revolution, a term given the adoption of agriculture, transformed economic, political, and social organization. Its beginning can be found in the Middle East as early as 10,000 B.C.E. The use of agriculture gradually spread or was adopted independently in centers, including parts of India, North Africa, America and Europe.
It was not until about 3500 B.C.E. that the changes brought about by the Neolithic revolution brought about the development of early complex societies. Locations situated close to fertile river banks suited the development early complex societies because their economic production was based upon agriculture. Rivers were also used for cleansing and drinking as modern reticulation did not exist. Irrigation methods and calendars were developed to advance agricultural efficiency. Later, boats were constructed and used for transportation and trade. As the societies grew denser some of the other technological advances introduced were the potter's wheel, wheeled vehicles, improved shipbuilding allowing seafaring ships, and bronze tools.
The four great river valleys commonly recognised as forming the basis of early civilizations are the Tigris and Euphrates ...
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