This era also saw new kingdoms and technology. In fact, the Middle Ages set the stage for the birth of modern Europe. This is divided into two parts: the early middle ages and the high middle ages. The Early Middle Ages saw the Fall of the Roman Empire. The fall started on the second century. The debate still goes on today about the theory of the fall of the Roman Empire but generally, what happened was mismanagement. The Roman Empire was suddenly too big for some of the leaders and they failed to maintain the civic infrastructures that they built, like libraries, public baths and schools. Because of this, merchants also lost the confidence in investing in the empire and the intellectual development of the empire stagnated. It also became unsafe for traders to trade, thus economic collapse followed. This vulnerability offered the barbarians the chance to attack the empire. This event led to the fall of the empire and some Romans migrated to lands as far as Iberia. The Roman Empire fell because of the repeated Gothic invasions. The felled Empire saw a wave of Germanization in their culture, and it was controlled by many barbaric tribes. Charlemagne was an important character in this era. He was the king in the largest territory in Europe that time. He was named by Pope Leo III as the Emperor of the Roman Empire. This is not to be confused with the Byzantine Empire which is the medieval Roman Empire since his territory is called the Carolingian Empire. This period also saw Byzantium and Avar Khanate.