The National Association for the Advancement of Coloured Peoples was not organized only in the eve of the Civil Rights movement. It was actually instrumental in the gradual growth of the African American political consciousness since its establishment in February 12, 1909 in New York. Apparently, it is one of the oldest civil rights organisations in the country. It was also one of the most influential. The aim of the NAACP was “to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination” (Watts 2010: 200). It is clear that the organisation was and is not just focused on the African American people. However, in the 1950s and 1960s, its objective was to arouse national consciousness about the inequalities suffered by the African Americans. In order to achieve this, the NAACP was involved in lobbying activities. Its leaders seized every opportunity to speak in public about the issues confronting black Americans. It also did publication work, utilizing the avenues provided by the mainstream media while publishing their own. The NAACP distinguished itself from other groups in the Civil Rights movement for its tendency to use the courts to question the legality of practices that were considered as racist or discriminatory. While the NAACP was more focused then making the public aware of the issue of racial equality and litigation, the Congress of Racial Equality or CORE was one of the first groups that took an active role in consolidating the ranks of civil rights advocates among the ranks of the students. CORE was founded in 1942 by students based in Chicago. The group was greatly influenced by the principles laid out by Mahatma Gandhi and Henry David Thoreau. Its aim was to secure equality for all people throughout the globe (deGregory 2009). At first, CORE was interracial and it does not have a formal organisational structure. However, as it tried to realise its aims, it expanded to the south, where African Americans were suffering the brunt of racial discrimination. Its working-class black membership swelled and soon CORE’s immediate objective was geared towards the end of the Jim Crow laws and racial segregation and discrimination of the African Americans in general. CORE became a trailblazer in employing militant but non-violent actions to further its cause. It was one of the first groups in the Civil Rights movement to apply coercive non-violent tactics. Among its most prominent actions are the Journey of Reconciliation in 1946 and Freedom Ride in 1961. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference became widely known, especially because it was able to produce leaders like Martin Luther King, Jr. It was founded in 1957 by a group of mostly African American church ministers. The SCLC “mirrored a basic fact about the leadership in the Southern black movement of the 1950s and 1960s: ministers wielded influence out of all proportion to their numbers” (Fairclough 2001: 13). The SCLC’s aim was also to eradicate social ills, including racial discrimination which at that time was in the form of Jim Crow laws and racial segregation. The organisation’s immediate objective then was to mobilize the churches for Civil Rights movement. Its methods were mainly in the forms of boycotts and other similar
Prominent Groups and Individuals in African American Civil Rights Movement The Civil Rights Movement in the United States that peaked in the mid-1950s until the 1960s was focused on the struggle for racial equality. Prior to this, a large part of the country, particularly in the southern states, were still governed by what are known as Jim Crow laws…
The movement’s main form of resistance was civil disobedience which was supported by acts of nonviolent protest including sit-ins in Greensboro (1960), and marches, such as, those from Selma to Montgomery in 1965. This scenario induced a situation of the crisis between the authorities and the Civil Rights activists.
There were massive campaigns of civil resistance from the black population in America. At some point in the 1950s and 1960s, nonviolent protests and open acts of civil disobedience initiated disagreements between activists in the civil movement and the American government.
It was in the year 1619 when a North American colony in Virginia namely the Jamestown welcomed the African slaves and this event marked the beginning of slavery in the United States of America. These African slaves were brought to America to facilitate the production of lucrative crops that can make the country wealthy.
The civil Rights Movement did not only mark the end of isolation of African American, it even ended segregation of other minority groups throughout US. Body During 1955 blacks were tired of the slowness showed by policy makers in conducting the act of desegregation and they were even angry due to the obstacles created by the whites.
The present paper will present how the African Americans experienced inequality during the Civil rights movement. They have experienced the failure of reconstruction as they continuously felt how the Whites are aggressive towards them with violence.The Whites were violent towards them to prevent them from voting, to experience desegregation in the school division between the Whites and Blacks, and to be given lesser opportunities for work.
Perhaps much of the multicultural ethos that the modern day USA is characterized by is shaped numerous feminist struggles for rights by disparate racial groups and a thrust for collective responsibilities and demands in contemporary times. The essay shall seek to compare the history of rights and responsibilities between three major ethnic groups- Native American, African American and European American spanning over three centuries, from the Declaration of Independence to the times in which we dwell, 2013.
As an activist, Malcolm X advocated the fusion of both religion and politics-particularly advocating for Islam, citing its advantages over the Christian values of the black American oppressors, the white Americans.
This paper discusses Malcolm X's persona as an Islam activist.
Between 1863 and 1965 in America, there was a major ideological shift in how the Federal Government perceived African-American issues. 1863 holds value because it is the year that President Abraham Lincoln passed the Emancipation Proclamation freeing slaves in America.