Presently, numerous historians have associated Hellenistic period with the influence of Philip’s and Alexander’s regimes. This is because of their wisdom and exemplary leadership which they then exhibited, prompting the thriving of Hellenism and spreading of Greek’s influence to the Middle East. This period has also witnessed the emergence of creative art, literature, scientific breakthroughs and scholarly works by diverse philosophers.
Philip and his son Alexander the Great contributed immensely to the shaping of the Hellenistic period’s culture. This is especially through the leaders who came after them though they were incompetent (Coffin et al. 157). Initially, Philip, due to his wisdom and exemplary leadership strategies, has managed to sway Greeks to attack Persia, but he has not managed to accomplish this mission during his lifetime. Afterwards, his son Alexander the Great managed to achieve this mission by waging massive campaigns during which he not only conquered Persia but also annexed Greece, Near East and Egypt. In 323 B.C, Alexander’s unexpected death at the age of 33 created a power vacuum, which prompted his closest generals to take over the empire’s leadership. However, due to internal wrangles which developed among them coupled with their leadership incompetence, the empire collapsed and split into three dynasties: Egypt under the Ptolemy’s leadership, Seleucia ruled by Seleucus, and Macedon (Coffin et al. 178). These dynasties varied considerably in their leadership styles, but they still maintained Alexander’s ideals, which contributed immensely to the spread of Greek civilization in the Middle East.
Hellenistic period comprised two main features which differed from other civilizations. One of them was the large-scale aspect, which was contrary to the Polis’ period. The aspect entailed the deployment of large armies that consisted of 60,000-70,000 men